Podcasti zgodovine

USS Thomas (DD-182), okoli 1920

USS Thomas (DD-182), okoli 1920

Ameriški uničevalci: ilustrirana zgodovina oblikovanja, Norman Friedmann. Standardna zgodovina razvoja ameriških uničevalcev, od najstarejših uničevalcev torpednih čolnov do povojne flote in zajema ogromne razrede uničevalcev, zgrajenih za obe svetovni vojni. Bralcu daje dobro razumevanje razprav, ki so obdajale vsak razred uničevalcev in vodile do njihovih posameznih značilnosti.


USS Thomas (DD -182), okoli 1920 - zgodovina

Od opazovalca Idaho novembra 2003:

Ameriški posojilni program je ZSSR pomagal postati vreden nasprotnik hladne vojne

Med drugo svetovno vojno je ameriška vojska začela upravljati tako imenovani program “lend/lease. ” V tem programu so ZDA svoje zaveznike obdarile z vrsto vojaške opreme in streliva - vključno z ladjami. Britanci, Italijani in komunistična Sovjetska zveza so prejeli večino tega ameriškega vojaškega dela za boj proti Nemcem in Japoncem. Po vojni ladje, ki niso bile potopljene, niso bile vrnjene v ZDA, ostale so pri narodu, ki jih je preimenoval ali jih je dal drugemu narodu.

iz raziskave Thea. Teče

Seznam 35 plovil, prenesenih iz ZDA v britansko mornarico, skupaj z dezgnacijami razredov, njihovimi številčnimi identifikacijami, prvotno krščenimi imeni ameriške mornarice in njihovimi preimenovanimi imeni britanske mornarice, je sestavljen iz uradnih razkritih tajnih dokumentov ameriške vlade.

Od teh 35 jih je pet naštetih kot potopljenih, osem jih je bilo prenesenih iz Velike Britanije v Sovjetsko zvezo. Sledijo imena teh plovil, ko so se spremenila:

USS Cowell, DD-167-HMS Brighton-ZHARKY

USS Crownshield, DD-134-HMS Chelsea-DERZKI

USS Herdon, DD-198-HMS Churchill-bivši Churchill

USS Maddox, DD-168-HMS Georgetown-ZHOTSKY

USS Twiggs, DD-127-HMS Leamington-ZHGUCHI

USS Yarnall, DD-143-HMS Lincoln-ex Lincoln

USS Fairfax, DD-93-HMS Richmond-ZHYVUCHI

USS Thomas, DD-182-HMS St. Albans-DOSTOINI

ZDA so v britansko mornarico prenesle tudi najmanj pet podmornic. Od teh petih so se trije preimenovali v HMS Unbroken, HMS Ursula in HMS Unison in so bili nato preneseni v Sovjetsko zvezo.

Lahka križarka USS Milwaukee je postala MURMANSK, seznam 10 obalnih minolovcev, ki so jih Sovjeti dobili med drugo svetovno vojno in po njej.

Približno 44 podrejencev, razredov 47 in 46 podrejencev, razreda 497, je bilo prenesenih v Sovjete.

Sovjetom je bilo podeljenih približno 77 PT (motornih torpednih) čolnov razredov 37, 71 in 103. V primeru čolnov tipa PT##147Vosper ” je bilo 12 izdelanih v ZDA za Sovjetsko zvezo v letih 1937 in 1938 v ZDA.

S programom posojanja/najema so ZDA Sovjetom podarile štiri krmarje YMS 347 čistilcev in 10 čistilcev trupa s trupom 136 čevljev.

ZDA so Sovjetom dale tudi več ladij, opremljenih za opravljanje več specializiranih nalog, kot so opazovanje vremena, logična podpora in nadzor.

Ladje obalne straže ZDA USCG Eastwind, Westwind in Northwind so postale ADMIRAL MAKAROV, SEVERNY POLYUS in SEVERNY VETER.

Italijani so svojo mornarico predali leta 1943. Mnoga plovila, ki so jih prejeli od ZDA v okviru programa posojanja/najema, vključno z bojnimi ladjami, težkimi križarkami, lahkimi križarkami in uničevalci, so bila prenesena v roke Sovjetov. Skupno je bilo zaveznikom predanih približno 51 teh ladij in 15 podmornic. Koliko so jih prejeli Sovjeti, niso poročali, vendar zgodovina programa posojil/najemov, za katerega se zdi, da je bila izdelana shema za tihi prenos ameriških vojaških sredstev na Sovjetsko zvezo v pripravah na hladno vojno, kaže, da večina ali pa so vsi končali v komunističnih rokah.

Po drugi svetovni vojni so Nemci predali približno 171 podmornic. Kolikor vemo, te podmornice niso bile uničene, niti jih niso prenesli v ZDA ali Veliko Britanijo in jih naročile oborožene sile teh držav.

Zato se je zdelo, da so Sovjeti po drugi svetovni vojni te podmornice prejeli z blagoslovom drugih zaveznikov.


Zgodnje življenje, kariera in izguba

Thomas je bil rojen v Grass Valleyju v Kaliforniji 7. julija 1904 in je 5. junija 1908 diplomiral na pomorski akademiji ZDA. Po službi v oklepni križarki USS Maryland (ACR-8) in topniški čoln USS Yorktown (PG-1 ), je bil 29. junija 1910 poslan v praporščaka.

V naslednjih nekaj letih je Thomas služil na USS Denver (C-14), USS Cleveland (C-19) in USS West Virginia (ACR-5).

26. junija 1913 je bil imenovan za poročnika (j.g.), poleti 1914 je bil ločen od Zahodne Virginije, da bi se udeležil podiplomskega tečaja parnega inženirstva na Pomorski akademiji. Konec leta 1915 se je udeležil univerze Columbia in se 24. junija 1916 na krovu USS Florida (BM-9) prijavil kot njen električni častnik.

Thomas je bil 8. januarja 1917 naročen kot poročnik, aprila pa je bil postavljen za vodjo pomorske oborožene straže na trgovski parnici SS Vacuum. 28., ko je opazovalec poročal o ogledu nemške podmornice, približno 120 milj zahodno od Hebridskih otokov, je poročnik Thomas odšel k ladijski pištoli. Nekaj ​​trenutkov kasneje je torpedo iz U-21 udaril v vakuum in eksplodiral ter vrgel Thomasa in posadko pištole v vodo. Ladja je potonila v dveh minutah. Thomas je kmalu umrl zaradi mraza in izpostavljenosti.

Bil je prvi mornariški oficir Združenih držav, ki je izgubil življenje v vojni z Nemčijo in je bil posmrtno odlikovan z mornariškim križem "za ugledno službo v svojem poklicu kot poveljnik oborožene stražarske posadke. Vakuuma".

Richarda je preživela žena Evelyn, kasneje se je poročila s H.B. Kelly '06, ki je umrl leta 1942, in Francis Traynor '10. (Podatki iz številke junija 1975 Sopotnik.) Richarda sta preživela tudi dva njegova brata, ki ima marker spomina v Angliji in drugega na pokopališču pomorske akademije.


  1. ^"Thomas I". DANFS . http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/t5/thomas-i.htm. Pridobljeno 08.11.2007.  
  2. ^"Thomas II". DANFS . http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/t5/thomas-ii.htm. Pridobljeno 08.11.2007.  
Osebni podatki
Ime Thomas, Clarence Crase
Alternativna imena
Kratek opis Častnik mornarice ZDA
Datum rojstva 26. december 1886
Kraj rojstva Grass Valley, Kalifornija
Datum smrti 28. januarja 1917
Kraj smrti
  • 1886 rojstev
  • Smrt 1917
  • Ljudje iz Grass Valleyja v Kaliforniji
  • Ljudje iz okrožja Nevada, Kalifornija
  • Alumni Naval Academy of United States
  • Častniki mornarice ZDA
  • Kalifornijsko vojaško osebje
  • Ameriško vojaško osebje je umrlo v prvi svetovni vojni
  • Prejemniki mornariškega križa

Fundacija Wikimedia. 2010.

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USS Thomas (DE-102) - je bila druga ladja mornarice Združenih držav Amerike, ki je dobila ime po Clarence Crase Thomas. Položila jo je družba Dravo Corp., Pittsburgh, PA, 16. in#8230 ... Wikipedia

USS Thomas - Dve ladji v mornarici Združenih držav Amerike sta bili poimenovani USS Thomas za Clarence Crase Thomas: * Thomas (DD 182), uničevalec razreda Wickes, izstreljen leta 1918 in leta 1940 prenesen v kraljevsko mornarico kot HMS St. Albans. * Thomas ( DE 102), razred topov in#8230 ... Wikipedia


Študij oblikovanja duševnega azila iz 19. stoletja

WASHINGTON, DC-V 19. stoletju so številne duševne ustanove v ZDA, ki jih sponzorira država, sprejele arhitekturni pristop k zdravljenju. V skladu z načrtom Kirkbride, ki ga je predlagal zagovornik duševnega zdravja Thomas Story Kirkbride, je bilo sredi do poznih 1800 zgrajenih okoli 80 azilov. S poudarkom na svežem zraku in sončni svetlobi v svojih krilih so velike osrednje stavbe institucij izgledale bolj kot razkošna posestva kot zapori, kjer je bila v prejšnjem stoletju zaprta večina bolnikov. Leta 1854 O gradnji, organizaciji in splošnih ureditvah bolnišnic za norijo, Je Kirkbride trdil: "Ustrezno skrbništvo in ravnanje z norci sta zdaj priznani kot dolžnosti, ki jih vsaka država dolguje svojim državljanom."

Pogled na Washington, DC, iz St. Elizabeths (1955) (z dovoljenjem ameriške nacionalne medicinske knjižnice)

Čeprav so pozneje postale prenatrpane in prizadete zaradi zlorab, so institucije v Kirkbrideu predstavljale prelomnico za bolj humano obravnavo duševnih bolezni. Na žalost njihova oblikovalska dediščina zdaj izginja. Te strukture se borijo za ohranitev, od bolnišnice Greystone, ki so jo leta 2015 porušili v New Jerseyju, do regijskega centra za zdravljenje Fergus Falls, ki ostaja v limbu v Minnesoti. Izziv ni posledica le njihove ogromne, namensko zgrajene velikosti, ampak tudi njihove zapletene zgodovine, v kateri so bile nekatere metode »moralne obravnave«, kot je Thorazine, uspešne, druge, kot so lobotomije, pa krute. Tudi sam Kirkbride je bil v nekaterih radovednih muhah 19. stoletja, kot so diapozitivi čarobnih luči, ki prikazujejo strašne podobe, za katere je menil, da bi lahko vsaj za prehodno obdobje nadomestili "blodnje in morbidne občutke".

Čarovnik s čarobno lučjo "Nightmare Turtle", ki so ga uporabljali v St. Strokovnjak bolnišnice za duševno zdravje Thomas Kirkbride je nekoč zapisal, da bi lahko slike nadomestile "blodnje in morbidne občutke, vsaj za prehodno obdobje". (fotografija avtorja za Hyperallergic)

Pogled namestitve Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti 1852–2017 v Narodnem gradbenem muzeju (avtor avtor za Hyperallergic)

Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti, 1852–2017 v Nacionalnem gradbenem muzeju v Washingtonu, DC, je poglobljeno raziskovanje oblikovanja v kontekstu duševnega zdravja, ki se osredotoča na lokalne svete Elizabete. Arhitekturnim risbam iz Kongresne knjižnice se pridružujejo predmeti, ki se uporabljajo pri zdravljenju, pacientova umetnost, elementi oblikovanja iz stavbe Centra St. Elizabeths Center, ki je v prenovi, fotografije, dokumenti in drugi materiali. Odprta leta 1855 kot vladna bolnišnica za nore, je bila stavba Centra zasnovana v skladu s Kirkbridsko nižino po arhitektu Thomas Ustick Walter.

Dodatki, kot je Hitchcock Hall, odprt leta 1908 s podrobnostmi iz terakote in gledališčem s 1200 sedeži za kulturne izkušnje in terapijo, so razširili kampus St. Elizabeths s pogledom na Washington, DC. Od osredotočenosti na 250 bolnikov je dosegel vrhunec s skoraj 8000 v šestdesetih letih in še danes deluje v precej manjšem obsegu. Kljub dolgi zgodovini na območju DC je bilo v njegovih stenah le nekaj ljudi, razen bolnikov in zaposlenih.

Zamisel o zidovih in vprašanje, koga ali kaj delijo in kako, sta tako kot kdaj koli pravočasni, zato je pomembno, da Arhitektura azila se začne s to temo. Uvodno stensko besedilo navaja:

Stene lahko izolirajo, zaščitijo in ločijo eno vrsto rabe zemljišča od druge. Kjer je nekoč stena pomagala varovati tako bolnike kot sosede, je tudi držala zemljo ločeno od preostalega dela mesta.

Viktorijanski porte-cochère-zaščitni in okrasni nadstrešek za obiskovalce stavbe Center-je bil v zgodovini sv. Elizabeta večkrat porušen in obnovljen. (1938) (vljudnostna knjižnica Kongresa)

Pacient na gugalniku (1955) (vljudnost ameriške nacionalne medicinske knjižnice)

To ločitev je okrepljeno z razgledom institucije na spodnje mesto v kombinaciji s podeželsko pokrajino, ki jo tvori 1000 skrbno posajenih dreves. Zavod je deloval tudi kot samostojna samooskrbna skupnost z živinorejo, kmetijstvom ter električnimi in vodnimi postajami. Samota je del terapije, ki jo spodbuja njena bukolična zasnova. Razstava deluje kot most čez to izolacijo z uporabo predmetov, kot so arhitekturni detajli iz kovanega železa-vključno z okrasnimi okni, okrašenimi z listjem-, da pokažejo, kako je bila lepota stavbe Centra St. Elizabeths tudi oblika zaprtosti. Zgodnji stroj za električni udar in diagnostična karta, ki navaja "homoseksualne nagnjenosti" in "splave" kot simptome, je opomnik o tem, kako je fizikalna obravnava pogosto zaostajala za progresivnostjo.

Arhitektura azila uravnoveša svetlobo in temo, pri čemer ugotavlja, kako lahko zgodbe o preganjanju nenavadno pomagajo ohraniti azil Kirkbride, majico s spominki iz nočnega obiska v Zahodni Virginiji, ki je v Ludenskem azilu Trans-Allegheny. Ker je razstava v Narodnem gradbenem muzeju, se osredotoča na oblikovalske značilnosti sv. Elizabete, ki jo ugovarjajo senzacionalizmu. V teh preperelih starih azilih je nekaj fascinantnega z obokanimi hodniki in veličastnimi obdukcijskimi gledališči, ki so jih zgradili, da bi zdržali, vendar niso dovolj veliki za množico bolnikov v 20. stoletju. Christopher Payne je ta paradoks ujel v seriji fotografij neuporabljenih Kirkbrides, razstavljenih pred kratkim v galeriji Benrubi. Slike so v nasprotju s človeškimi sledovi, kot so zapuščene zobne ščetke in zmečkane ravne jakne z marmornimi stopnicami in neoklasičnimi kupolami.

Stavba Centra dekonstruirana (2016) (© Colin Winterbottom)

Pacientovo izkušnjo s stavbami Kirkbride je težko pridobiti, saj so številna poročila in pisanje naredili zdravniki ali drugi bolniki. (Obstajajo izjeme: bolnik sv. Elizabete in pesnik Ezra Pound je njegovo Howardovo dvorano imenoval "peklenska luknja.") S svojo namestitvijo, ki vam omogoča, da pokukate skozi kovinske okenske rešetke ali pogledate model leta 1904, izdelan za svetovni sejem St. Arhitektura azila želi ponuditi pogled od znotraj navzven na 150 let življenja pri sv. Elizabeti.

Model azila kot vasi je v poznem 20. stoletju z razvojem novih zdravil in povečanjem ambulantne oskrbe ter zmanjšanjem javnih sredstev zastarel. St. Elizabeths je zdaj nacionalna zgodovinska znamenitost, njeni pacienti se zdravijo v kompaktni novi bolnišnici, zaključeni leta 2010. Mesto Washington, DC, načrtuje razvoj mešane rabe za vzhodni kampus, oddelek za domovinsko varnost pa se seli v zahodni. Razstava te velike spremembe uporablja kot priložnost za razmislek, kaj lahko stavbe sv. Elizabete pomenijo v 21. stoletju in kako bi lahko končno sprejele ljudi v svojem obzidju.

Verande stavb Allison iz leta 1890 so pozneje zaprli, da bi zagotovili več prostora za bolniške postelje. (1910) (vljudnost Nacionalne uprave za arhive in evidence)

Pogled namestitve Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti 1852–2017 v Narodnem gradbenem muzeju (avtor avtor za Hyperallergic)

Pogled namestitve Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti 1852–2017 v Narodnem gradbenem muzeju (avtor avtor za Hyperallergic)

Obloge za hidroterapijo pri St. Elizabeths (1900) (z dovoljenjem National Archives and Records Administration)

Pogled namestitve Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti 1852–2017 v Narodnem gradbenem muzeju (avtor avtor za Hyperallergic)

Čipka, ki jo je ustvarila Adelaide Hall in prikazuje golobčka, kačo, druge živali in Devico Marijo (1917), morda predstavlja preteklo travmo bolnika, ki je bil 35 let pri sv. Elizabeti (avtor avtorja za Hyperallergic)

Arhitekturni fragment iz rušenja državne bolnišnice Greystone Park leta 2015 (avtor avtorja za Hyperallergic)

Pogled namestitve Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti 1852–2017, s podrobnostjo o modelu sv. Elizabete iz leta 1904 (avtor avtorja za Hyperallergic)

Pogled namestitve Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti 1852–2017, z vzglavjem postelje iz 20. stoletja (foto avtor za Hyperallergic)

V stavbi Centra pri St. Elizabeths sta bili tako pisarni za bolnišnične upravitelje kot oddelki za paciente (1900). (vljudnost Nacionalne uprave za arhive in evidence)

Arhitektura azila: sveti Elizabeti, 1852-2017 se nadaljuje do 15. januarja 2018 v Narodnem muzeju stavb (401 F Street NW, Washington, DC).


Ladje v Kanadi - RMS Scythia - Cunard Line, 1920-1958 - ladje 2

Le tri leta preden je bila posneta ta fotografija, je pozno ponoči parkirala na tem mestu in družino G & oumlldi dostavila v Kanado.

"Največja večerja", ki jo je družina pojedla tisti večer, je podrobno opisana v spodnjem meniju.

Dnevnik potovanja je tudi spodaj.

Spodaj je pogled na to lokacijo iz zraka. Lope Pier 21 so v modri barvi za levo križarko.

Od leta 1608 do 1960 so Kanado skoraj izključno naselili priseljenci iz Evrope, ki so prišli na priseljenskih ladjah.

Na tisoče jih ni uspelo in so umrli na morju, ko so njihove ladje potonile v nevihtah ali pa so se nasedle na grebenih. Nešteto več jih je umrlo na poti v obljubljeno deželo na ladjah, ki so podlegle ali gorele na Velikih jezerih.

Največja skupina priseljencev je tista, ki je v Halifax prispela v prvi polovici 20. stoletja. Od leta 1890 do 1971 je skoraj 4 milijone priseljencev pristalo na pristaniščih za priseljence v Halifaxu, na pomolu 2 in po prvi svetovni vojni na pomolu 21.

Tipična družina priseljencev je bila družina Johna G & oumlldija, višjega švicarskega javnega uslužbenca, ki je svojo petčlansko družino pripeljal v Kanado, zaradi velikega števila priseljencev po drugi svetovni vojni pa je hotel biti kmet v južnem Ontariju. Prav z leve Fred, Heidi in John le nekaj mesecev pred odhodom iz stare dežele v potujočih oblačilih.

Pristali so na pomolu 21, v Halifaxu, 15. decembra 1950, na liniji Cunard RMS Skitija.

Levo in spodaj, so nekateri tipični zgodovinski predmeti spominkov, ki jih je na tisoče priseljencev hranilo v družinskih omarah in beležkah, da bi jih spomnilo na najbolj vznemirljivo pustolovščino, na kateri so bili, ki so dolge dneve prečkali severni Atlantski ocean, ne da bi videli kopno.

Orig. pepelnik - velikost - 10 cm
Najdeno - Peterborough, ON

Pepelnik za spominke s portretom ladje, izvedene na ozadju metuljevih kril.

Decembra 1950 sem bil kot devetletnik v pristanišču Le Havre (Francija) in se spomnim, kako sem osupno gledal, ko je moj oče opozoril na Libert & eacute (spodaj), ko je velika ladja, ki je ropotala, odletela iz izhoda iz pristanišča za New York. Le nekaj ur kasneje smo ji sledili na morje, mimo istih bombardiranih zgradb Le Havre spodaj..

Moj oče, ki je bil frankofil, je imel oljno sliko Normandija zgoraj visel nad svojo zakonsko posteljo v štiridesetih letih.

Nihče, rojen po letu 1950, ne more razumeti ogromne mistike, ki je navdušila in prevzela tiste, ki smo se podali na velike oceanske prehode v dobi velikih oceanskih linij od leta 1860 do 1960.

Preden so letala in televizija pomanjšali svet, je bil oceanski prehod v mislih kot potovanje na Luno. Bilo je osupljivo, da si mislil, da boš več dni izven vidnega polja in z gotovostjo, da se odpravljaš na pot, s katere se ne boš nikoli vrnil, da zapuščaš družino, ki je ne boš nikoli več videl. To je bila slovesna resničnost, s katero smo se morali vsi sprijazniti, šele leta 1950. Ni se izgubilo pri tem devetletniku, ki se dobro spominja slovesnega prizora, ko je njegov oče staršem naročil, kar smo vsi vedeli, zadnje slovo.

In razmišljali ste o teh stvareh, ko ste gledali navzgor na jekleno steno, ki se je dvigala nad vami na pomolu. Vaše varovanje bi bilo zaupano njegovemu objemu.

In kako bi drugi lahko razumeli neopisljivo visoko, ko ste ponoči pogledali z nizke palube, na visoke valove, ko je podloga padla v ogromno korito in udarila naprej v razburkano morje, tisoč milj od obeh bregov.

V slanem pršenju ste vedeli, da je na tisoče ljudi, ki nikoli niso preživeli Atlantskega prehoda

(Prav Libert & eacute na samem pristanišču Le Havre, s katerega sem jo nekaj let prej opazoval, kako odhaja.)

Na tisoče drugih, ki so se nazadnje dotaknili obale, bi na morju našli prezgodnjo smrt.

1 - Quai d'Escale kjer smo se vkrcali Skitija in kjer so se moji starši zadnjič dotaknili tal Evrope.

Na istem mestu, kjer so z veliko pompom in slovesnostjo na krovu naložili truplo neznanega ameriškega vojaka prve svetovne vojne USS Olympia leta 1921 spodaj.

2 - Kje sem videl Libert & eacute pometite iz pristanišča.

3 - Pristanišče, ob katerem Normandija, in nešteto drugih odličnih linij, kot so Ile de France, Francija in Pariz, tudi priklopljeno, kot je prikazano spodaj.

4 - Kjer se reka Sena izliva v Rokavski preliv.

5 - Smer v New York in Kanado.

Levo otroci G & oumlldi, le nekaj tednov preden so stopili s Quai d'Escale in se vkrcali Skitija spodaj oblečena v taka oblačila.

Ladja je 8. decembra 1950 ob 15:45 zapustila pristanišče. Naslednja postaja Halifax, Kanada. In novo življenje, ki mu naš oče ni več zaupal, da bo Evropi dala svojo družino.

Tako smo bili pogosto pod vrhom valov, ko so tekali mimo.

Očarani smo nekaj časa opazovali bitko med ladjo in valovi, nato pa šli na vrh in bruhali.

Arthur Rubinstein in London Symphony sta nastopila na Skitija - vse pa je bilo seveda posneto za igranje v zvočnikih v javnih prostorih.

Na krovu so bile tudi igre, ki lahko pozabijo shuffleboard na zgornji palubi in premetavanje obročev. Oh, in koliko jih je šlo čez stran.

Nato poslušajte novice in se umaknite v Lounge za Bingo ali ples na Skitija orkester.

Vse seveda dopušča vreme.

Imeli smo dva dni zimske gale, ki so jo povsod bruhali! Nikomur ni bilo mar za kaj drugega.

John G & oumlldi stoji pri (2) spodaj v središču enega najbolj zgodovinskih kanadskih prometnih vozlišč, na mestu, kjer je skoraj šestdeset let prej njegova družina sedela na vlaku le nekaj metrov od mesta, s katerega so izstopili iz Skitija. Prečkali so po nebu spodaj (1) od pomola 21 na desni do leve imigrantske lope, da se jih uporabi. Nato so se odpravili na pot, da bi začeli novo življenje v Ontariu.

Nekoč je bilo tu enajst vzporednih železniških tirov, zato je bil priseljenski promet med letoma 1927–1970 več kot milijon tujcev, ki so upali, da bodo v Kanadi začeli smiselno življenje.

Navdušenje se gradi.

Bilo je izjemno pozno ponoči ali po polnoči, ko smo se tukaj vkrcali na vlak in šli po progi. A naše pustolovščine ni bilo konec. Nekje v divjini Nove Škotske je vlak nenadoma zaviral in se ustavil. Policija je švignila skozi avtomobile in med vsemi temi DP iskala - kaj drugega - saboterje.

Našli so le očeta v stranišču. Že leta življenja v Franciji je iskal vlečno verigo, ki se običajno nahaja v bližini keramičnega rezervoarja blizu stropa. Tam opazite vlečni kabel in je jasno označen V sili, ga je potegnil.

& quot; No & & quot pozneje se je pogosto smejal, "To je bilo nujno!"

Morda je nekoč držal ravno tir, po katerem je šel vlak G & oumlldija.

(NA VRH - Četa Kraljica Marija pristali 20. avgusta 1943 na istem mestu, kjer je Skitija je sedem let kasneje opustil G & oumlldis.)

Leta 2007 je to osamljeno in pozabljeno mesto. Kdo se zdaj spominja, da so te zapostavljene železniške glave več desetletij nekoč odmevale v krike in smeh več sto tisoč moških, žensk in otrok? Toliko sanj, toliko upanja se je začelo tukaj.

Toda za nekatere se je začela proga za številne druge - približno 500.000 kanadskih vojakov, ki so v drugi svetovni vojni sišli iz vlakov na tem mestu, preden so se vkrcali na vojaške ladje, ki so pristale namesto imigrantskih ladij. Pogosto so bile iste ladje.

Za tisoče kanadskih vojakov je to zemljišče sveto in je zadnje mesto, kjer so se kdaj smejali ali hodili po kanadskih tleh. Zdaj ležijo daleč od doma, na tuji obali.

Trije tipični "skromni DP" iz Evrope: John (tudi zgoraj), Heidi in Fred, posneti le nekaj mesecev pred zadnjim odhodom iz Švice leta 1950.

Njihovi starši se ne bi nikoli vrnili v staro deželo in nikoli več ne bi videli staršev ali bratov in sester.

Oba sta imela v srcu le eno strast, drug drugega - KANADO!

Insight Canada

Manjkajoči milijon- Znak, ki ga je postavil Odbor za zgodovinska mesta in spomenike, je seveda večinoma napačnega tona, interpretacije dogodka in dejstev, ki naj bi pojasnil & quotPostwar Immigration. & Quot

Približno 1.504.033 jih je prišlo v Kanado v letih 1946–1961 in zagotovo niso, kot plošča trdi, napačno sestavljeni le & kvota odvisnih od vrnjenih kanadskih vojakov in ljudi, dislociranih. bla, bla, bla. & quot

Nič ne bi moglo biti dlje od resnice - z eno besedo & quotbureaucrapese. & quot (Whaaaat! In ta zadnji stavek ni nujno, da ljudje, ki jih sklenejo, da napišejo te stvari, opravijo osnovni preizkus pismenosti ali pa imajo nekaj komunikacijskega ozadja? Ali angleško?)

Večina priseljencev je bila verjetno, tako kot naša družina, ljudi s premoženjem, ki so lovili sanje in se jim niso izognili.

Za sprejetje smo morali dokazati imeli smo veliko denarja za nakup kmetije ali pa bi nam zavrnili vstop.

Uradno je Kanada v Evropi opravljala grozljivo sramotno PR delo - ne le vojaki, ki so nejevoljne ženske vabili, da zapustijo svojo matično državo - sanjarjem je obljubljalo bogastvo in bogastvo. Mnogi so se vabili. Več kot nekaj vojnih nevest je obžalovalo, da so se kljub svoji boljši presoji pustile vleči. Zagotovo so bili "odvisni" sami, seveda se nikoli ne bi odločili za emigracijo v Kanado.


Skupina War Brides, ki je tu vidno omenjena, drugje pa si je dodelila še eno celotno plaketo, je bila majhna, nepomembna skupina, od približno 70.000 - le 48.000 jih je bilo pri odločanju odraslih - in si komaj zaslužijo ugled, ki jim ga dajejo na redko zapisani plošči na milijon plus.

In Kanada zagotovo ni iskala obubožanih in obubožanih množic - razseljenih - čeprav so bile mnoge prostovoljno sprejete.

Nasprotno, korenček, ne palica, je prinesla veliko večino priseljencev v Kanado v poznih štiridesetih in zgodnjih petdesetih letih in velika večina niso bili Britanci. A niti oni niti njihove sanje na tej plošči niso omenjene.

Če bi bil na krovu zgodovinar, ki je napisal ploščo Skitija leta 1950 ne bi slišal za zgodbe o pogubi in mraku o stari deželi, ampak zavzeto in radostno objel ideja o Kanadi ki je odmeval v srcih vseh na ladji.

(Pravzaprav je bila prva angleška beseda, ki sem se je naučil kot devetletnik na ladji, & quotSaskatchewan. & quot Tam, kjer je šel mladenič, sem se srečal v čajnici. Ponovil je Saskatchewan, kamor je z veseljem prišel. Saskatchewan - moja mama je rada povedala to besedo, ki smo jo vsi naredili. Sprašujem se, kakšne sanje je tam uresničil šestdeset let pozneje provinca še vedno izgubi več ljudi letno, kot jih prispe. En pogled in. Alberta vezana. )

Napačen in močno popačen anglocentričen pogled na ključni dogodek v kanadski zgodovini zanemarja milijon in več priseljencev italijanskega, nemškega, nizozemskega, poljskega, madžarskega, skandinavskega in številnih drugih evropskih področij, vključno s Francozi, Grki, Švicarji, Avstrijci itd. ... ki so na Kanado gledali kot na ideal, za katerega bi morali iti, ne pa na nekaj, kamor bi morali pobegniti. ali, tako kot vojne neveste, kraj, kamor se vleče.

Velika večina Evropejcev je ostala zadaj. Mogli bi tudi priseljenci. Namesto tega so izbrali Kanado.

Vojni ujetniki

Velik kanadski mit, kajti z vso hudo plahto o War Brides, je, da so izbrali Kanado! Niso izbrali moškega, ki je bil slučajno iz Kanade, in vztrajali, da pridejo z njimi v obljubljeno deželo. V Kanado so jih odpeljali kot vojne ujetnike, vezane z ljubezenskimi vezmi do moškega, za katerega se je izkazalo, da je v mnogih primerih resno napačno predstavljal sebe in svojo državo.

Priseljenci, ki so prišli, niso bili poraženci v življenju, ampak so se borili, lovili, sanjali. Ali so bili ljudje s tehničnimi veščinami, izobrazbo in denarjem, kot so starši otrok G & oumlldi, fotografirani pred odhodom, da bi lovili očetove sanje v Kanadi. Ugotovili so, da so njihove poklicne sposobnosti - izobraževalne, tehnične, pisarniške, jezikovne - nad ravnijo povprečnega Kanadčana, v katerega so se vključile.

John G & oumlldi je bil trijezični (poleg angleščine), bil je vrhunski švicarski športnik, mednarodni poslovnež, višji javni uslužbenec in je s svojo nagrado piščanci Mechelner osvojil najvišjo razstavo v državi.

Tudi Johnova žena Ruth ni bila nič hudega. V dobi pred magnetofoni, diktafoni in računalniki, ko so bile sposobnosti izvršnega sekretarja zelo cenjene-skrbno zapisovanje zapiskov, natančnost pri kratkih rokah in bliskovito hitro tipkanje-je bila mama v Švici brez primere.

Leta 1939 je bila po državnem tekmovanju nagrajena kot najvišja izvršna sekretarka v Švici

V prihodnjih letih je veliko priseljencev odkrilo - in na glas povedalo -, da jim je v stari deželi bolje. Da so tisti, ki so ostali zadaj, vedno bolj uspevali. Ker bi se v kasnejšem življenju pritoževale neštete žene - vključno z mnogimi vojnimi nevestami - & quotNe zaljubi se v sanjača & quot

Odbor za zgodovinska mesta in spomenike bi moral spremeniti svoj znak, da bi odražal pravo zgodovino Kanade, ne pa romantično zvijačo. In pravilno predstavljajo milijon plus ne-Anglosov ki je prišel iskat kanadske sanje kot primarno izbiro, pa ne zato, ker niso imeli druge možnosti, kot da bi v slabi ponudbi v stari državi izkoristili kar najbolje.

Skitski prstan

Eden dragih spominkov, ki jih je oče kupil mami na ladji, je bil spodaj prstan Scythia s krilom metulja.

Toda nekje v težkih dneh dela na kmetiji, okopavanju paradižnika, obiranju fižola ali prelivu sladkorne pese je odpadlo in ga je izgubila.

Nikoli je ni našla in bo o njeni izgubi zamišljeno govorila še desetletja.

Tako močni so bili ti spominki ladij za nove Kanadčane.

Odsevali so sanje v njihovi najčistejši obliki, v najbolj intenzivni, neomadeževani in brezkompromisni izkušnji, ki so ji sledile, kot se v življenju vedno zgodi.


Ali ste vedeli, da je bil vsak peti ameriški mornar v začetku 19. stoletja črnec? Takrat je bilo pomorstvo po kmetijstvu najpogostejši moški poklic v državi.

Ali ste vedeli, da je Frederick Douglass preoblečen v mornarstvo? Ali pa da so prvih šest avtobiografij, ki so jih črnci napisali v angleškem jeziku, napisali pomorščaki?

Kaj pa sprožilna točka ameriške revolucije in#8211 pokol v Bostonu? Ali ste vedeli, da je bil Crispus Attucks, prvi človek, ubit pri pokolu v Bostonu, črni mornar? Bil je mornar in izdelovalec vrvi mešanega afroameriškega in indijanskega porekla.

Celotni portret afroameriškega mornarja, obrnjen spredaj, avtorja Ball & amp Thomas, c. 1861 in 1865. Fotografija z dovoljenjem Kongresne knjižnice. Neznani afroameriški mornarji, ki igrajo stave, avtorja Leo Weintrob, c. 1917-1918. Fotografija s pomočjo Kongresne knjižnice.

When we learn about the slave trade, we tend to think of the Middle Passage and the sheer horror of men, women, and children stolen from their lands, with a sizable portion not surviving the journey to America. While it’s hard to get precise figures, estimates suggest that 10-20% of people died before reaching America. It’s a sad story that has left many to believe that black people have a fear of ships and the sea. But long before the horrors of the Middle Passage, Africans had strong connections to the sea and vessels, regarding ships and boats as workplaces but a site of spiritual power. Historian W. Jeffrey Bolster said, “I would hope some black kid learning this story would realize he can do anything — because that’s what his ancestors had to do and did.”

“Everybody assumes that any black sailors there might have been at that time would be unlettered and ignorant.” Bolster explained. “And uncovering even one letter by an American black during the 1700s is a big deal. Here we have 12.”

Watercolor of abolitionist James Forten (1766-1842) believed to have been painted during his lifetime. Courtesy of The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

V American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm, Gail Buckley documents the amazing story of James Forten. Born free in Philadelphia in 1766, James Forten joined the crew of Royal Louis in 1781.

On Forten’s second cruise, a British frigate overran the ship and captured the entire crew. The British captain’s son befriended Forten, and the captain eventually offered him a life in England. However, Forten refused to renounce his American allegiance. He was imprisoned on board the British Old Jersey. Confined with hundreds of prisoners off the coast of New York, Forten struggled to survive (11,000 prisoners died on this ship throughout the war) while continuing to resist the British. After seven months, Forten was released and made the 100-mile trek back to Philadelphia despite severe malnutrition.

After the war, Forten worked for a sailmaker and became the owner of a sail loft. He invented a sail-maneuvering tool and amassed a $100,000 fortune. He was a strong abolitionist and a founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Forten’s relatives and descendants continued his abolitionist and patriotic fights after his death in 1842. His nephew, James Forten Dunbar, served in the Navy during the Civil War .

At the time, sailors were not identified by race. Each person was listed by name, place of birth, residence, age, height, hair type, and complexion. Sailors with “black,” “African,” “mulatto” or “yellow” complexion were almost always described as having “woolly” hair. It is the most reliable indicator of race. When sailors’ complexions were described as “brown” or “dark,” it became complicated since deeply suntanned white sailors could also be described this way. In the absence of other corroborating evidence, Bolster counted these men as white.

Because of the collective hardships of shipboard life, racial stratification was not as pervasive. Of course, some white sailors did treat their black counterparts badly, but far more appear to have accepted their crewmates no matter their race. Sailing was an environment in which mastery of nautical skills was the preliminary factor judging men.

A small percentage of enslaved men became coastal captains or pilots. These men led all black crews, developed tangible skills and leadership abilities. While these men and their ships could only operate in slave territory, these captains created a degree of physical and psychological freedom that was unheard of on land.

Image: Painting depicting the pre-Civil War era of slavery in Virginia, of enslaved African Americans in the Great Dismal Swamp maroons by David Edward Cronin, Public Domain.

Moses Grandy was born into slavery in Camden County in 1786 and as a child became very interested in maritime occupations. As a result of his skills as a river ferryman, canal boatman, schooner deck man, and lighter captain he became known as Captain Grandy. William Grandy, a prominent slave owner in Camden County was Moses’s first slave master. William’s son, James, inherited Moses in 1794 and hired him out annually to various owners to tend ferry along the Pasquotank River and haul lumber in the Dismal Swamp. He was able to purchase his freedom for $600. Captain Grandy dictated his autobiography, “Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy, Late a Slave in the United States of America,” to fellow abolitionist George Thompson, and it was published in 1843.

Thousands of black patriots served on American vessels during the American Revolution (1775-1783). According to a U.S. Army report on the African American military experience, higher percentages of black men served in the naval forces than the land forces. The Continental Navy did not restrict their service like the army and militias. The navy also protected them from man-stealers and slave masters. But the Continental Navy was relatively small, and black sailors served in even greater numbers on board state naval vessels and privateers.

At the time, many black sailors were enslaved, and records of their service are hard to find. Often owners put forth their slaves to serve under a substitution system, but the owners received their pay. For many black seamen, the most significant development in the American Revolution was the end of slavery in many northern states. After the Revolution, black men in the North could enter the maritime labor market as free men, giving hope to the still enslaved mariners from the South that a society without slavery in the United States could exist.

For USS Constitution, which carried approximately 450 men, seven to 15 percent of the crew translates to approximately 32 to 68 black or multiracial sailors per cruise during the War of 1812. Image: The USS Constitution, c. 1920, when it served as a barracks ship in Boston, Massachusetts, Jess Welt Collection, SSHSA Archives.

Within the maritime slave system, captains and pilots like Moses Grandy now had skills that could help propel them toward freedom. By the first quarter of the nineteenth century, many free men of color worked in international seafaring throughout the Atlantic.

Because of stereotyping at the time, however, most mariners of color filled roles as cooks, officers’ servants, or musicians, differentiating them from seamen proper. In 1810, 51% of African American mariners were listed as cooks or stewards in Providence, Rhode Island. Superior officers assigned berths according to race, with white colonial culture mirroring its values on board ships.

While it was difficult for free blacks to acquire land and they faced discrimination in most trades, black New Englanders turned to the sea to keep their families together, acquire land, and gain respectability.

Black seamen became bearers of news from all corners of the world, becoming themselves what newspapers and the royal mail service were to white elites. Whereas white seamen were among the most marginalized in white society, black seamen gained access to privileges, worldliness, and wealth denied to most slaves. Black sailors exemplified black manhood and independence.

As early as 1822, lawmakers began requiring black sailors’ incarceration during southern port calls. Denmark Vesey’s slave revolt in 1822 in Charleston triggered new laws, specifically at black seamen. Vesey, who was a mariner in his youth, never confessed, but several of his leaders did. They pointed to black seamen as the links in the chain of rebellion. Black sailors were eventually banned from Southern ports on the eve of the Civil War (1861-1865). Although there is widespread debate among historians who assert that the Vesey conspiracy was never real, but instead a result of slaveholder paranoia. Vesey’s refusal to “name names” has long been held up as a form of resistance, but others argue he simply had no information to confess as the plot was unreal. Either way, his case led to increased restrictions on black sailors at the time.

After emancipation, blacks shipped out almost exclusively as cooks, Bolster says, in part because of the “wickedly racist” seamen’s unions that gradually took over the maritime trades. By the middle of the nineteenth century, black men had fewer opportunities at sea and racial segregation became more prominent than it was in the past.

A Navy postcard from 1907 shows officers at a mess table on a U.S. warship. It is unclear if the black man standing at the right is a sailor or perhaps a steward or cook. SSHSA Archives.

Mining Lights and Hats

The depth, the dark, and the dangers inherent in mining created a uniquely dangerous working environment for the miner. Miners faced death from collapsing mines, oxygen deprivation, and haulage accidents, with the specter of fatal lung disease remaining even after the miner had left the mines. But the most instantaneous and catastrophic loss of life was caused by explosions due to miner&rsquos lamps igniting methane gas.

20th c. Canvas Mining Cap & Lamp Bracket

A miner&rsquos light was essential to their labor. Without light there was no sight, no work, and no wages. But this essential light was also lethal. Open flames could ignite the inflammable gas especially prevalent in coal mines and mining explosions with hundreds of casualties was a common occurrence in the late 19 th and early 20 th century. Miners often carried open flames into the mines in the form of candles and hanging lamps, and later wore the open flames of carbide lamps and oil-wick lamps on their caps and helmets.

Before 1850, miners would use candles or small lamps that were hung from crevices or hammered into timbers near their work. From 1850 until around 1915, miner&rsquos headgear generally consisted of cloth or canvas hats with leather brims and metal lamp brackets on the forehead that allowed them to hang a source of light on the front of their cap. Caps served the ancillary use of protecting the miner&rsquos eyes from smoke or soot and their head from small bumps, but its main purpose was as a mount for their lamps.

Dunlap's Oil-Wick Cap Lamp,ca. 1840-1890

Around 1850, the oil-wick cap lamp was invented in Scotland. Oil-wick cap lamps were shaped like small kettles&mdasha small font that contained oil fueled a wick that was stuffed into the spout. The oil-wick cap lamp issued a bare flame, giving off enough light for miners to see what was in front of their face, but not much further. The oil-fueled flame was exceedingly smoky, and could easily ignite flammable gasses (mainly methane) found in coal mines. These lamps were worn on soft caps that offered little in the way of protection and were mainly worn for the convenience of having a light source in front of the miner's face.

Simmons Carbide Lamp, ca. 1915

Carbide lamps were also worn on soft caps. Invented around 1910, the small carbide cap lamp had several advantages over an oil-wick cap lamp. The acetylene gas that powered the flame burned cleanly, relieving the miner from the smoke and soot from oil lamps. Also, the flame from the acetylene gas burned brighter than oil-wick cap lamps. Carbide lamps often came with a reflector, allowing this brighter flame to be directed and giving the miner a wider range of light. The drawback of the carbide lamp was that its open flame was still capable of igniting methane gas in mines.

Used in conjunction with oil-wick and carbide cap lamps was the safety lamp, a much larger lamp that could not be worn, but had the advantage of a sheltered flame that would not ignite any flammable mine gasses. In the early 1820s Sir Humphry Davy discovered that a flame enclosed in mesh would not ignite flammable gasses. The fine metal mesh served to cool the flame so that it no longer had the energy required to ignite the flammable gas in a mine. Mine safety lights eventually developed to include a glass enclosure around the flame for better lighting and metal bonnet to better protect the flame.

Miner's with Edison Battery-powered Lamps and Safety Lamp,Warwick Mine, Pennsylvania ca. 1955

Even though it was developed in the 19 th century, the safety lamp was not enthusiastically adopted by miners. Many miners objected to using safety lamps because they were cumbersome, could not be worn on the cap, and gave a poor light, all serving to reduce a miner&rsquos efficiency. Since most miners were paid by the pound a reduction in efficiency amounted to a reduction in pay, and so the risk of an explosion was worth the reward to many miners.

The early 20 th century was the deadliest time for miners in the history of the United States. In 1907, Monongah mines number 6 and number 8 exploded, killing 362 miners. A fire in Cherry Mine in Cherry, Illinois killed 259 miners in 1909. In 1913 Stag Canon Mine number 2 in Dawson, New Mexico exploded killing 263 miners. These were the three worst coal mine disasters in the U.S. history, prompting Congress to establish the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1910. The Bureau turned their attention to the new technology of electric lamps in an effort to curtail accidents through the elimination of flames and an improvement in lighting. In 1915 the Bureau approved the MSA Edison Flameless Electric Miners&rsquo Cap Lamp, beginning the age of electric mine illumination that correlated with a steady decrease in mining accidents from the high reached in 1907.

Just like the soft mining caps that were used to hold oil-wick or carbide mining lamps, mining helmets were used to hold the new electric cap lamp. The lamp sat in a bracket at the front of the helmet, with the cord running along the helmet's crown, guided by a cord holder in the back of the helmet to route the cable directly to the battery pack worn on the miner&rsquos belt.


In 1920, Jews, Italians, Irish And Greeks Were The People From 'Shithole' Countries

Last week Donald Trump called for blocking immigrants from “shithole” countries, setting off a wave of domestic and international condemnation. Despite reports by eyewitnesses including Senator Dick Durbin of Illinois, a Democrat, and Senator Jeff Flake of Arizona, a Republican, Trump denied insulting Haitians, Central Americans, and Africans. He also repeatedly denies that he is a racist. Representative Mia Love, a Republican and the only Haitian American in Congress, accepted the truth of the reports, called Trump’s behavior unacceptable, and demanded an apology.

The government of Botswana, a nation is southern Africa, called Trump’s comments “highly irresponsible, reprehensible, and racist,” and demanded to know from the U.S. ambassador whether they were considered a “shithole” country. In Brussels, a European Union lawmaker, told the Associated Press that Mr. Trump “had forgotten to engage his brain before talking.”

The United States ambassador to Panama, a career diplomat and former Marine Corps officer, resigned because he could no longer honorably serve as a representative of the Trump administration. However, the best response to Trump was probably by Trevor Noah on Comedy Central who declared, “As someone from South Shithole, I’m offended.” Noah’s comments are worth watching.

Unrepentant, on Sunday Trump tweeted: “I, as President, want people coming into our Country who are going to help us become strong and great again, people coming in through a system based on MERIT. No more Lotteries! #AMERICA FIRST.”

Apparently Donald Trump wants to keep out non-white immigrants from Africa, Central America, and the Caribbean, and is encouraging immigration from all-white Norway. But Norway is a very sparely populated country with a little more than 5 million people, and according to the CIA World Factbook, its per capita GPA is amongst the highest in the world and its health care and educational systems are excellent, so Norwegians are unlikely to immigrate to the United States, especially with Donald Trump in the White House.

This is not the first time that American leaders wanted to keep out “undesirable” immigrants from “shithole” countries. In 1753, Benjamin Franklin denounced Germans pouring into Pennsylvania because they refused to assimilate to American customs and values. By the way, the Trump family is of German decent.

The cartoon above is from Puck magazine and was initially published in 1893. Five well-dressed, prosperous looking men are blocking the path of a newly arriving immigrant. Looming behind them are shadows representing their impoverished selves or family members when they first arrived in the United States. But now they want to prevent a new wave of immigrants, from I guess, “shithole” countries.

It is worth examining Congressional debate in 1920 and 1921, when the people from “shithole” countries were Jews, Italians, Irish, and Greeks. During World War I Congress imposed a literacy test to try to restrict undesirable immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. When this did not block enough newcomers, they established a quota system in 1921 and an even more restrictive quota in 1924.

Between 1900 and 1909, 2 million immigrants came to the United States from the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1.9 million from Italy 1.5 million from Russia almost 350,000 from Ireland and 145,00 from Greece. The immigrants from Austro-Hungary and Russia were largely Jews. Immigration was disrupted between 1910 and 1919 by World War I, spiked in 1920 and 1921, and then declined as a result of the quota laws. Between 1930 and the outbreak of World War II in 1939, as a result of the quotas but also the Great Depression, there were only 12,500 immigrants from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire 85,000 from Italy 2,400 from Russia 28,000 from Ireland and 10,500 from Greece. Overall, immigration to the United States plummeted from 8.2 million people between 1900 and 1909 to fewer than 700,000 between 1930 and 1939, which was less than 1/10th. These quotas were responsible for keeping Jews fleeing Hitler and Nazi Germany from entering the United States, including my relatives, in the 1930s.

In 1920, Representative James V. McClintic, a Democrat from Oklahoma, was chair of the House Immigration Committee. During debate he claimed to have visited Ellis Island where he saw immigrants with no money, the “off casts of the countries from which they came,” who were “Practically all of them were weak, small of stature, poorly clad, emaciated . . . It is for this reason that I say the class of immigrants coming to the shores of the United States at this time are not the kind of people we want as citizens in this country.”

Representative Lucian Walton, a Democrat from Texas, seconded McClintic’s nativism and told Congress “We should stop immigration entirely until such a time as we can amend our immigration laws and so write them that hereafter no one shall be admitted except he be in full sympathy with our Constitution and laws, willing to declare himself obedient to our flag, and willing to release himself form any obligations he may owe to the flag of the country from which he came . . . [W]ithin a few short years the damage will have been done. The endless tide of immigration will have filled our country with a foreign and unsympathetic element. Those who are out of sympathy with our Constitution and the spirit of our Government will be here in large numbers, and the true spirit of Americanism left us by our fathers will gradually become poisoned by this uncertain element.”

James Thomas Heflin, a white supremacist from Alabama nicknamed “Cotton Tom,” championed the anti-immigrant position in Senate debate. He declared, “I would like to shut for a time the immigration door. Thousands come here who never take the oath to support our Constitution and to become citizens of the United States . . . They fill places that belong to the loyal wage-earning citizens of America. They preach a doctrine that is dangerous and deadly to our institutions. They are no of service whatever to our people. They constitute a menace and danger to us every day.”

Congressman William Mason, a Republican from Illinois, felt compelled to respond to his anti-immigrant colleagues. “I cannot be silent . . . I want to say for my fellow immigrants in the House - - you are all immigrants what have you got big heads about, every one of you. If this bill had been passed 50 or 100 years ago hardly any of the House would have been here. It would have kept the Pilgrim Fathers out. They had no passports. The meanest thing about this bill -- and I say that with all respect to my good friends who framed it -- is that the whole theory that this was to be the land of the free and the home of the brave and an asylum for the oppressed is destroyed by it . . . But to me the most unsentimental, the most selfish, un-American, unpatriotic thing is the ungodly desire to crowd every man off the earth because we do not want to compete with him. We get a prejudice and you know that largely the basis of this is the prejudice against the Jews. Tell the truth about it. We are not afraid to speak the truth, are we? There is a prejudice against the Poles there is a prejudice against the Germans there is a prejudice against the Irish.”

Almost 100 years later the names of the “shithole” countries and immigrants have changed, but the same racism and anti-immigrant bias still infects the United States — and it occupies the White House.


How Did the Light Bulb Change the World?

During the 1800s, many inventions revolutionized the United States and the world. One of these was the light bulb. With the invention of the light bulb, people began altering their homes with electricity and using the light bulb instead of fire for nighttime light. The effects of this invention were not all positive. With the light bulb now being used more frequently, the gas companies were suffering, and gas stocks went down.

The new invention of the light bulb also spurred the expansion of electrical power grids everywhere. The largest of these was first built in 1895 in Niagara Falls. At the time, this was the world's first power station. The light bulb brought about more inventions such as electrical appliances, the phonograph, and even other versions of the light bulb.

The long-term effects on society were noticed. People were staying up later in the evenings because of the lighting they now had, cities became more social in the evenings, and homes were safer now that they weren't being lit and heated by fire.

Who Invented the Light Bulb?

A lthough Thomas Edison is credited with the invention of the light bulb in 1879, other inventors were working on various designs to produce electricity or light. In the year 1800, Alessandro Volta, an Italian inventor, was working on a way to generate electricity. He used zinc and copper for this invention and, in the process, the copper wire would glow and produce light.

W arren de la Rue designed a version of the light bulb in 1840. His bulb used copper wire and a platinum filament, and it worked successfully. However, the price of platinum was too high, preventing the invention from becoming a success. Joseph Swan was an English chemist that also came up with this version of the light bulb in 1850. His was made with a carbonized paper filament but didn't have the technology to make the vacuum pump of the bulb to work efficiently.

E dison discovered what the issue was with Swan's design and came up with an invention that used a thinner filament that made the bulb operate more efficiently. Edison's version of the light bulb was considered a success in 1879 and, by 1880, he founded his own electric company named Edison Electric Illuminating Company of New York.

How Does a Light Bulb Work?

W hen Edison designed the first light bulb, it worked with the power of electricity. The electricity traveled through a glass vacuum bulb to a delicate platinum filament to provide the light. The vacuum of the glass bulb would slow down the melting of the filament. This bulb would only last a few hours before burning out.

T oday, the light bulb is designed very differently. The metal base at the bottom of the bulb has two metal contacts to connect to an electrical circuit. Two wires travel from the metal contacts to a thin metal filament in the middle of the bulb. The glass bulb that surrounds the wires and filament contains an inert gas, usually argon. When an electrical current powers the light bulb, the energy travels through the wires to the filament to create light. The modern-day light bulb, in more scientific terms, radiates light by a reaction between positively and negatively charged atoms.

The Different Types of Light Bulbs

T he incandescent light bulb was the first one put into use for the common home. Today, there are fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) bulbs, halogen bulbs, and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.

jazncandescent Bulbs

T his bulb used to be the most commonly used in homes and other buildings. This bulb operates a little differently than the original invented by Edison. It brings light by passing a current through wires to a tungsten filament, which provides a glow. These bulbs have a life of about 700 to 1,000 hours.

F.luorescent Bulbs

T hese bulbs are tubes made up of gases, such as mercury. The light works by an electric current traveling from cathodes on the ends of the bulb to the gases, which radiate energy. The tubes have a phosphorus coating, which takes the energy and converts it to light. The fluorescent bulbs last longer but contain gases, so they need to be disposed of in a special way.

CFL

C FL bulbs are more energy-efficient than an incandescent bulb and last about 10,000 hours. Many homes replaced their incandescent bulbs with CFLs. These bulbs are a spiral shape and operate with the same technology as the fluorescent tubes.

Halogen Lamps

H alogen lamps are popular in older floor lamps and car headlamps. These are much more efficient and compact than an incandescent bulb. Halogen lamps operate with a tungsten filament that is surrounded by a transparent casing. The bulb is filled with an inert gas and halogen, which increases the life and brightness of the light.

LED

L ED bulbs are the most popular found in homes and buildings all around the world. These bulbs come in a variety of light colors and are a top choice due to their energy efficiency. The LED bulb works by an electric current traveling to a negatively charged diode, which creates a flow of electrons and protons.


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