Podcasti zgodovine

Charles Fickert

Charles Fickert

Charles Fickert, sin kmeta, se je rodil leta 1873. Obiskoval je univerzo Stanford, kjer je študiral pravo. Nadarjen športnik, Fickert je bil zvezda univerzitetne nogometne ekipe.

Leta 1898 je Fickert vstopil v odvetniško pisarno W. B. Kollmyerja in Edwarda R. Taylorja. Dve leti kasneje pa se je vrnil v Stanford in postal pomočnik trenerja univerzitetnega nogometa pri Fieldingu H. Yostu. Leta 1901 je Fickert zamenjal Yosta kot glavnega trenerja. Naslednje leto je Fickert po vrsti slabih rezultatov odstopil in nadaljeval kariero odvetnika.

Marca 1904 je Fickert postal pomočnik okrožnega tožilca Združenih držav v San Franciscu. Naslednje leto je začel delati kot samostojni odvetnik.

Fickert, član republikanske stranke, se je leta 1909. potegoval za okrožnega državnega tožilca v San Franciscu. Boril se je proti umazani kampanji, guverner Kalifornije Hiram Johnson pa je izjavil: "Fickert je začel nemire z lažmi. , nor gledal. " Kljub temu je Fickert premagal Francis Heneyja s 36,192 na 26,075.

22. julija 1916 so delodajalci v San Franciscu organizirali pohod po ulicah v prid izboljšanju nacionalne obrambe. Kritiki pohoda, na primer William Jennings Bryan, so trdili, da organizirajo pohod pripravljenosti finančniki in lastniki tovarn, ki bi imeli koristi od povečane porabe za strelivo.

Med pohodom je na ulici Steuart eksplodirala bomba, ki je ubila šest ljudi (kasneje so umrli še štirje). Dve priči sta opisali dva temnopolta moška, ​​verjetno Mehičana, ki sta nosila težak kovček blizu mesta eksplozije bombe.

Gospodarska zbornica je takoj ponudila nagrado v višini 5000 USD za informacije, ki so vodile do aretacije in obsodbe dinamiterjev. Temu znesku so dodale druge organizacije in posamezniki, nagrada pa je kmalu dosegla 17.000 USD. Ponudbo tako velike nagrade je urednik časopisa obsodil New York Times trdijo, da gre za "nagradno igro za krivokletnike".

Na večer bombardiranja je Martin Swanson odšel k Fickertu. Swanson je Fickertu povedal, da je kljub trditvam, da je to delo Mehičanov, prepričan, da sta za eksplozijo odgovorna Tom Mooney in Warren Billings. Naslednji dan je Swanson odstopil z Zavoda za zaščito javnih služb in začel delati za okrožno državno tožilstvo. 26. julija 1916 je Fickert odredil aretacijo Mooneyja, njegove žene Rena Mooney, Warrena Billings, Israel Weinberga in Edwarda Nolana.

Nobena od prič bombnega napada ni identificirala obtožencev v sestavi. Tožba tožilstva je namesto tega temeljila na pričevanju dveh moških, brezposelnega natakarja, Johna McDonalda in Franka Oxmana, govedarja iz Oregona. Trdili so, da so videli, da je Warren Billings bombo postavil ob 13.50. Oxman je nekaj minut kasneje videl Toma Mooneyja in njegovo ženo, ki sta se pogovarjala z Billings. Na sojenju pa je fotografija pokazala, da sta bila par oddaljena več kot kilometer od kraja dogodka. Ura na fotografiji jasno prikazuje 1,58 ure. Zaradi velikega prometa takrat Mooney in njegova žena nista mogla biti na kraju bombnega napada ob 13.50. Kljub temu je bil Mooney obsojen na smrt, Billings pa na dosmrtni zapor. Rena Mooney in Israel Weinberg nista bila spoznana za kriva, Edward Nolan pa nikoli ni bil priveden pred sodišče.

Mooneyjeva obrambna ekipa se je pritožila nad načinom izbire njegove porote. Bourke Cockran je poudaril, da "vsak sodnik višjega sodišča v San Franciscu" v polje, iz katerega so porotniki izčrpali imena oseb, ki se mu zdijo primerna. Teoretično naj bi izbral osebe, ki so posebej usposobljene za odločanje o vprašanjih Dejstvo je, da v prakso v polje vnese imena moških, ki želijo biti izbrani. Praktični rezultat je, da je žirija skupščina hromih, ustavljenih, slepih in nezmožnih, z nekaj izjemami, in to je dobro znano okrožnemu državnemu tožilcu, ki lahko tako izbere poroto po lastni izbiri. "

Fickert je bil ponovno izvoljen za okrožnega državnega tožilca leta 1919. Diskreditiran z objavo poročila Densmore ga je premagal sodnik Matthew Brady (47.000 glasov proti 40.000). Štiri leta pozneje je poskusil znova, a tokrat ga je preplavilo 71.000 do 27.000.

Fickert se je preselil v Los Angeles, kjer se je uveljavil kot odvetnik. V poznejšem življenju je postal alkoholik, žena pa se ga je zaradi nezmernosti in običajnih iger na srečo ločila.

Charles Fickert je leta 1937 umrl zaradi pljučnice.

Gospodje, primer je tukaj veliko resnejši od vseh drugih primerov, ki so bili kdaj predloženi kateri koli poroti. Ne gre za toženca proti gospe Van Loo; ta nesrečna ženska počiva; ti otroci sirote morajo iti skozi življenje in razmišljati o prizorih, ki so se tam odvijali. Toda tukaj, gospodje, je bil prekršek: ta ameriška zastava - to ameriško zastavo so želeli užaliti. To so užalili z ubijanjem žensk in moških, ki so ga častili. Tu je še ena fotografija gospe Van Loo, ki umira na ulicah našega mesta in v šibki roki drži ameriško zastavo, in če naj se ta zastava še naprej maha, morate moški narediti konec tem dejanjem, kot so ta . Kar se mene tiče, me nobene osebne posledice ne bodo odvrnile niti za delček od zaprisežene dolžnosti. Kakšne so osebne posledice, kakšne so politične posledice v takšni krizi? Gospodje, na kocki je samo življenje naroda. Takrat na naši zemlji ni bilo tujih sovražnikov, ampak neki izdajalec, neki morilski zlikovec, ki je s svojimi sodelavci storil ta zločin in sramotil zastavo, so vzeli življenje tej nesrečni ženski.

Zdaj imamo, gospodje, dovolj dokazov na 721 Market Street - in samo Bog ve, če ne bi bilo dejanja Estelle Smith in tistih, ki so ga tam videli. Bog samo ve, morda je bilo tristo ali štiristo otrok delavskega razreda San Francisca odpihnjenih v večnost.

On (Billings) je verjetno z veseljem slišal jok teh žensk in otrok. Moj bog! Tukaj ste slišali, da je to opisano, in potem sem videl - ženske z dojenčki v rokah, z odmaknjenimi nogami, ki se plazijo stran od razbitin krute lupine, in če bi lahko slišali jok nekaterih od teh otrok, če bi lahko videli, kot sem jaz videl, mojega prijatelja Lawlorja, ki je pihal do neprepoznavnosti, na to ne bi mogli pomisliti rahlo.

Ta obtoženec in njegovi kolegi-anarhisti so v času miru ubili deset moških in žensk, ker so bili ti anarhisti nagnjeni k uničenju same vlade, ki jo je Lincoln ohranil in zagovarjal. Vprašanje, ki vas, gospodje, tukaj in vse druge državljane te velike republike zadeva, je uničiti anarhijo ali pa bodo anarhisti uničili državo.

Če je moralno vlakno ljudi tega naroda tako oslabljeno; če so semena anarhije tako vdelana v telesno politiko, da nočemo ali zanemarimo obrambo svojih državljanov doma ali v tujini; ko lahko nemočne ženske in otroke na ulicah našega mesta neusmiljeno ubijejo, tisti, ki jih ubijejo, pa ostanejo nekaznovani, ker so tisti, ki so prisegli, da bodo spoštovali zakone, zaradi zanemarjanja ali strahu opravili svojo dolžnost - potem se lahko poslovimo k veličini našega naroda; naša hvalisana civilizacija je tedaj samo samoizvajanje, ki počiva na robu političnega brezna.

Na sojenju Mooneyju so ljudje kot pričo povabili enega Frank C. Oxmana, katerega pričanje je bilo najbolj škodljivo in je imelo za obtoženca največje posledice. Dejansko je po mojem mnenju izpoved te priče daleč najpomembnejša, ki so jo podali Ljudje na sojenju Mooneyju. V potrditev teh navedb bi vas spoštljivo opozoril na zapisnik, vložen v pritožbi. V zadnjem tednu sem bil opozorjen na nekatera pisma, ki jih je Oxman napisal, preden je bil poklican za pričanje, o katerih so vedeli in v posest zagovornika obdolženca od odločitve o predlogu za novo sojenje. Avtorstvo in pristnost teh pisem, katerih fotografske kopije posredujem s tem, sta nesporna in nesporna. Kot boste takoj videli, imajo neposredno verodostojnost priče in segajo do temeljev resnice zgodbe, ki jo je Oxman povedal na stojnici za priče. Če bi bili pred mano v času obravnave predloga za novo sojenje, bi mu brez oklevanja odobril. Na žalost zadeva zdaj ni v mojih rokah po pristojnosti in zato vas, kot predstavnika ljudstva v pritožbi, obračam na vas, da vas opozorim na nujnost takšnih ukrepov, ki bodo povzročili vrnitev zadeve sodišče za ponovno sojenje. Oxmanova pisma nedvomno zahtevajo razlago, kar zadeva Mooneyja, bi nedvomno razlago morala slišati porota, ki se sprašuje o njegovi krivdi ali nedolžnosti.

V celoti cenim nenavaden značaj takšne zahteve, ki prihaja iz prvostopenjskega sodišča, v vsakem primeru in zanj ne poznam nobenega primera. V okoliščinah tega primera menim, da se vsi, ki smo bili udeleženci sojenja, strinjamo, da pravica in pravičnost zahtevata novo sojenje Mooneyju, da ne bi prišlo do morebitne napake v primeru, ko človeško življenje je v igri.

Ko beremo pričevanje in preučujemo način vodenja zadev, se lahko sprašujemo o mnogih stvareh - o očitnem neuspehu okrožnega državnega tožilstva, da izvede resnično preiskavo na kraju zločina; ob enostavni prilagodljivosti nekaterih zvezdnih prič; o nepravilnih metodah, ki jih tožilstvo uporablja pri identifikaciji različnih obtožencev; pri žalostnih moških in ženskah, ki so bili predloženi, da bi dokazali bistvena dejstva v primeru največjega pomena; ob navidezni neučinkovitosti celo uveljavljenega alibija; na sangfroidu, s katerim je tožilstvo občasno zavrglo nevzdržno teorijo, da bi sprejelo drugo, ne tako absurdno; ob zavrnitvi državnega tožilca, da bi kot priče povabil ljudi, ki so dejansko videli padanje bombe; skratka ob splošni šibkosti in neverjetnosti podanega pričevanja skupaj s popolno odsotnostjo vsega, kar je videti kot resnično prizadevanje, da bi prišli do dejstev v zadevi.

Ko človek prebere in preuči celoten zapis, so te stvari izračunane tako, da v mislih celo najbolj blaznih povzročijo odločen duševni upor. Čista resnica je, da v primerih ni ničesar, kar bi ustvarilo občutek zaupanja, da sta spoštovana dostojanstvo in veličanstvo zakona. Nikjer ni nič podobnega niti doslednosti, učinek pa je bil obliž, neskladna improvizacija, nerodne in pogosto obupane smotrnosti.

Namen tega poročila ni podrobno analizirati dokazov, predstavljenih v teh primerih - dokazov, ki so vam vsaj v splošnih okvirjih že znani kot predsednik komisije za mediacijo po uradni dolžnosti . Dovolj bo, da vas spomnim, da je bil Billings najprej preizkušen; da je bil septembra 1916 spoznan za krivega predvsem zaradi pričevanja Estelle Smith, Johna McDonalda, Mellie in Sadie Edeau ter Louisa Romingerja, ki so bili vsi že zdavnaj temeljito diskreditirani; da se je tožilstvo januarja naslednjega leta, ko je bil Mooney sojen, odločilo, da iz očitnih razlogov ne uporabi Romingerja ali Estelle Smith, ampak da na seznam prič doda nekega Franka C. Oxmana, katerega pričanje je , ki potrjuje pričevanje dveh žensk Edeau, ki je predstavljalo najmočnejši člen v verigi dokazov proti obtožencu; da je bil na podlagi tega pričevanja Mooney spoznan za krivega; da je bil 24. februarja 1917 obsojen na smrt; in da se je aprila aprila istega leta nedvomno pokazalo, da je Oxman, glavna priča tožilstva, poskušal podreti krivosodje in tako dejansko uničil svojo verodostojnost.

Zdi se, da je razkritje Oxmanove perfidnosti, kot je to storilo tudi okrožno tožilstvo, obljubilo, da bo Mooneyju odobreno novo sojenje. Okrožni tožilec Charles M. Fickert je ob soočenju z dejstvi v prisotnosti uglednih prič priznal, da se bo strinjal z novim sojenjem. Njegov glavni pomočnik, gospod Edward A. Cunha, je navidezno priznal krivdo poznavanja dejstev v zvezi z Oxmanom in obljubil, da bo v duhu skrušenosti poskrbel za to, da bo pravica opravljena proti človeku, ki je bil obsojen z Oxmanovim pričanjem . Sodni sodnik Franklin A. Griffin, eden prvih, ki je spoznal grozen pomen razkritja in močno ljubosumen na svojo čast, ni izgubil časa pri uradnem namigovanju primernosti novega sojenja. Državni tožilec države Hon. Ulysses S. Webb je v zahtevi pri vrhovnem sodišču v Kaliforniji pozval k podobnemu ukrepanju.

Zadeve so se tako zdele na pravičen način odpravljene, ko sta dve stvari zmotili upanje obrambe. Prva je bila nenadna sprememba Fickerta, ki je zdaj zanikal, da bi se kdaj strinjal z novim sojenjem in katerega prizadevanja so bila odslej namenjena nerodnemu poskusu, da bi pobelil Oxmana in vseskozi upravičeval svoje motive in ravnanje. Druga je bila odločitev vrhovnega sodišča, da ne more preseči spisa v zadevi - z drugimi besedami, te sodbe ni bilo mogoče razveljaviti zgolj zaradi tega, ker je temeljila na lažnem pričanju.

Obstajajo odlični razlogi za prepričanje, da so Fickertovo nenadno spremembo odnosa spodbudili emisarji nekaterih lokalnih korporativnih interesov, ki so najbolj ostro nasprotovali sindikalnemu delu. Obtoženci Mooneyja so z veliko verjetnostjo trdili, da je bil Fickert stvar in orodje teh močnih interesov, med katerimi sta glavna gospodarska zbornica in glavne javne službe v mestu San Francisco. V zvezi s tem je izrednega pomena, da bi moral Fickert večji del preiskovalnega dela v teh primerih zaupati Martinu Swansonu, detektivu korporacije, ki je nekaj časa pred eksplozijo bombe zaman poskušal povezati iste obtožencev z drugimi nasilnimi kaznivimi dejanji.

Od razkritja Oxmana se je zadeva okrožnega tožilca postopoma topila, dokler ni ostalo le malo, razen slabega zapisa o manipulacijah in krivokletstvu, nadaljnja razkritja pa so ogrozila verodostojnost skoraj vseh glavnih prič tožilstva. In če bi bila potrebna dodatna potrditev inherentne šibkosti zadev zoper te soodgovornike, se zdi, da jo bo oprostila oprostitev gospe Mooney 26. julija 1917 in Izraela Weinberga 27. naslednjega oktobra.

Tem oprostilnim sodbam je sledila preiskava Komisije za mediacijo in njeno poročilo predsedniku z dne 16. januarja 1918. Poročilo Komisije, ki je v celoti zanemarilo vprašanje krivde ali nedolžnosti obtoženega, je kljub temu v spremljajočih okoliščinah ugotovilo, da je razlogi za nemir in dvom o tem, ali sta bila obsojena moška deležna poštenih in nepristranskih sojenj.

Običajno bi neusmiljeno preganjanje štirih ali petih obtožencev, čeprav je za vse njih povzročilo nezasluženo kazen, verjetno imelo le lokalni učinek, ki bi bil kmalu izbrisan in pozabljen. Toda v primeru Mooneyja, ki ni nič drugega kot faza stare vojne med kapitalom in organiziranim delom, bi napačna sodna praksa razgorela strasti delavcev povsod in dodala prepričanje, ki je že preveč razširjeno, da delavci ne morejo pričakovati pravice iz urejene pritožbe na uveljavljena sodišča.

Vendar pa je ta sodna zmota v postopku hitrega doseganja. En človek bo obešen; drugi je v dosmrtnem zaporu; preostali obtoženci so še vedno v nevarnosti za svobodo ali življenje, od katerih bodo enega ali drugega zagotovo izgubili, če ne bodo preverili dejavnosti tega najbolj neverjetnega okrožnega odvetnika.

Jim. Lani sem ti lagal v San Franciscu, ko si me vprašal, ali je bil Oxman tam spodaj, ko se je zgodila ta eksplozija. Takrat ga ni bilo več kot vas. Tisti dan je večerjal v moji hiši in odšel iz Woodlanda šele po drugi uri. V San Francisco je prišel šele po peti uri tega večera.

Zavzel sem se za Oxmana in mu bil zvest, ker sem ga imel za enega svojih najboljših prijateljev, a me je mrzlo zavrnil. Kot hudiča Jim me je bolelo, da sem mislil, da bo z mano ravnal tako, kot je. Napisal sem mu več pisem, ki ga spominjajo na njegovo moralno dolžnost do mene. Na nekatere od njih niti ne odgovori. Veliko mi je obljubil, da mi bo pomagal, in se mi je izognil vsaki pritožbi, ki sem jo izrekel. Jim, mojo malo ženo sem postavil ob bok starcu, ko je bil v težavah. Lagala je tiste odvetnike, ko so prišli v Woodland, samo da bi pomagali Oxmanu.

Letos mi je šlo vse narobe in nisem mogel zaslužiti niti dolarja. Ko sem prosil Oxmana za posojilo, s katerim bi pomagal nahraniti in obleči mojo ženo in dojenčke, me je zavrnil. Ali to izgleda prav. Če bi šel na stojalo in povedal, kar vem, bi bil Oxman danes v državnem zaporu.


Charles Fickert - zgodovina

POKRIVANJE FICKERT RANCH
(znano tudi kot družinsko pokopališče Fickert)
Bear Valley Springs, okrožje Kern, Kalifornija

Izvedeli smo, da je okrožje Bear Valley Community Services lastnik stanovanjske hiše, na kateri je bilo v 1860 -ih letih ustanovljeno pokopališče Fickert Ranch. CSD trenutno poskuša prodati parcelo v zasebno last, čeprav je pogoj, ki ga je družina Fickert postavila sredi šestdesetih let, veljal od datuma, ko je družina prodala ta del ranča. Ukrepali bodo 14. AVGUSTA 2004.

Frederick Wallace Fickert, pravnuk pionirskega patriarha Fredericka Williama Fickerta, protestira proti prodaji parcele in poskusu CSD, da družini odvzame pravico do uporabe, uživanja in dostopa do pokopališča.

Menimo, da se je družina Fickert zmotila v jeziku, ki so ga uporabili v aktu, ki določa družinske pravice in dostop do pokopališča. Čeprav bi bil dokument lahko bolje napisan, se takšne napake ne sme uporabiti kot orodje za zanemarjanje pravice družine do uporabe pokopališča ali obiska in zaščite grobov svojih prednikov in bližnjih.

Če se strinjate, se obrnite na okrožje Bear Valley Community Services in jim sporočite, da menite, da bi moralo okrožje ohraniti lastnino za ohranitev pokopališča Fickert in za promocijo zgodovine območja.

Po e -pošti: Ta e -poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Če ga želite videti, omogočite Javascript.
Po telefonu: (661) 821-4428
Po faksu: (661) 821-0180

Robert T. Sheppard, Jr., predsednik
Okrožje za javne storitve Bear Valley
28999 South Lower Valley Road
Tehachapi, CA 93561

Drugi člani odbora so: Ron Samuels, podpredsednik Don Kordes Phillip Darling in
Al Romano.

Sue Silver, državni koordinator
5. avgust 2004

Cenimo podporo naslednjih posameznikov, ki so se odzvali v podporo našemu nasprotovanju prodaji tega pokopališča:

Patricia Borden, Newport Beach, Kalifornija
Virginia W. Thomas, Durham, Severna Karolina
Carolyn Feroben, Mariposa, Kalifornija
Lacy Summers, Adin, Kalifornija
Judith Stevens, Tehachapi, Kalifornija
Wanda VanderVeen, Etowah, Tennessee
J. Clark Wicke, Eureka, Kalifornija
Beth Humphrey, Stockton, Kalifornija
Debbie Peevyhouse, San Jose, Kalifornija
Jean Ebenhack, Stockton, Kalifornija
James R. Hewitt, Jr., Roseburg, Oregon
Jeremy Nichols, Santa Rosa, Kalifornija
Lorry E. Tibbetts, Diamond Springs, Kalifornija
Toy Lynn Cross, Coldwater, Michigan
Carol & amp Lance Lackey, Oakhurst, Kalifornija
Marcia Kettering, Indianapolis, Indiana
Cheryl Heryford Jones, Anderson, Kalifornija
Barbara Bobnarka, Albion, Iowa
Marti Hurley, San Francisco, Kalifornija
Michael Wimmer-Gonzalez, Bulverde, Teksas
Kay Sutherland, Elma, Washington
Jackie Pauley, Newark, Kalifornija
John C. & amp Evelyn Sammis
Kim Depenbrok
Patricia O'Neal, Wilcox, Arizona
Jack E. Briles, starejši, New Albany, Indiana
John & amp Tess Gingras, Bakersfield, Kalifornija
Fran Forni, Placerville, Kalifornija
Jeff Nickell, predsednik Zgodovinskega društva okrožja Kern
Marilyn Ann Flemmer, skrbnica, pokopališče Elk Grove-Cosumnes, Kalifornija
Debby Bailen, St. Louis, Missouri

Ta stran vsebuje naslednje razdelke:

Zgodovinski povzetek
Podatki o zgodovini območja, kjer se nahaja pokopališče.
Podatki o pokopališču
Splošni podatki o pokopališču in njegovi zgodovini.
Seznam pokopov
Seznam tistih, za katere je znano, da so pokopani na pokopališču, in podatki o
drugi možni pokopi.

[Izvleček iz "The Fickert's of Bear Valley" Eleanor Englestad]

Frederick William Fickert verjetno nikoli ni pričakoval, da bo postal kalifornijski govedi baron. Rodil se je 27. avgusta 1830 v Prusiji med nemškimi starši. Nemiren in ambiciozen Fred Fickert je pri petnajstih letih odšel od doma in odšel na morje. Pet let kasneje, leta 1850, je po potovanju iz Hamburga kot poveljnik preskrbe na trgovski ladji prispel v New York. Čez mesec dni je bil na ladji za San Francisco prek rta Horn. Mladenič se je odločil zapustiti pomorstvo in iskati srečo v rudarskih regijah Kalifornije. Večino naslednjih devetnajst let je preživel v iskanju vedno nedosegljive obljube o bogastvu, ki je vabila z zlatih polj okrožij Sierra, Butte, Yuba, Inyo in zgornji Kern.

Mary Glynn Fickert se je rodila 27. marca 1839 v Barney's Sloughu na Irskem, hči Thomasa Glynna in Mary Toohey Glynn. Ena od šestih sester, ki so emigrirale v ZDA, je leta 1859 prišla v New York v spremstvu svojega šogora Charlesa Bolanda. Iz New Yorka je potovala po morju in kopnem čez Panamski preliv v San Francisco. Ni zapisov o Maryinem življenju v Kaliforniji v letu ali dveh po njenem prihodu, niti o tem, kdaj in kje je spoznala svojega bodočega moža, vendar sta se 19. decembra 1861 Mary in Fred poročila v San Franciscu.

Poroka očitno ni zameglila Fredovih sanj o bogastvu, ki ga je mogoče najti v rudarstvu. Da je bil vztrajen priden človek, potrjujejo številna leta, ki jih je preživel v rudarju. Življenjepis iz leta 1891. pripoveduje, da je leta 1863 odkril "svetovno znani" rudnik Sierra Gorda in ustanovil rudarsko okrožje. Biografija je navedla, da je Fickert opustil Sierro Gordo, ker se je bal za varnost svoje družine. V šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je bil potreben pogum, da bi svojega moža odpeljali v opustošeno rudarsko taborišče, a tudi Marija je bila praktična in je Freda prepričala, naj se preseli na varnejša pobočja Kernvillea.

Po krajšem bivanju v Kernvilleu se je Fred družino preselil v Havilah, kjer se je spet ukvarjal z rudarjenjem, poleg tega pa je prevzel delovanje liverne hleva. Na žalost je liverna hiša pogorela leta 1868 in spet leta 1869. Ker so bili Fickertovi rudarski podvigi v Kernvilleu in Havilahu le zmerno uspešni, se je po drugi izgubi liverne konjušnice odločil, da bi bilo rančevanje lahko bolj donosno, in začel iskati primerno zemljišče.

Med potovanjem po gorah in v Tehachapis Fred je našel Bear Valley in bil navdušen nad njegovo lepoto, rodovitno zemljo in odlično pašo. Našel je svoj "rajski vrt", kot mu je kasneje rekel. Prvo zemljišče Fickert v dolini medveda je bilo kupljeno od Jamesa Williamsa, Esq. leta 1869. To je bila pravica skvoterja do 160 hektarjev.

Življenjepis iz leta 1981 se zaključi s tem očarljivim poročilom, ki ga je zelo verjetno napisal eden od Fickertovih, saj so družine posredovale informacije in plačale za objavo njihovih življenjepisov:

Fickertov dom je vsem znan kot kraj, kjer prijatelja in tudi neznanca vedno gostoljubno sprejmejo in pogostijo. Ko bodo generacije prihajale s prizorišč aktivnega življenja in bo ta lepa dolina napredovala do dostojanstva knežjega raja, bo ime te pionirske družine še vedno krepko izstopalo na straneh lokalne zgodovine kot ustanoviteljica naselja, rast in blaginjo ljubke medvedje doline - enega najbolj očarljivih v številnih lepih gorskih kotičkih osrednje Kalifornije.

Pokopališče se nahaja na zadnji strani stanovanjske parcele 1 plus hektarjev na Deertrail Drive v Bear Valley Springsu. Družina je javno službo rezervirala služnost, ki bi bila zdaj Deertrail Drive. Pokopališče je bilo začrtano kot 100 x 120 čevljev, čeprav je trenutno ograjeno v manjši velikosti.

Poroča se, da je vsaj sedemnajst dokumentiranih pokopov. Starodavec na tem območju je izrazil prepričanje, da naj bi bili trije od teh pokopov domorodni ameriški ranč, ki jih je v prvih letih zaposlila družina Fickert.

Prvi pokop na pokopališču naj bi bil pogreb Thomasa Fickerta, starega 10 let, ki je umrl leta 1876. Zadnji pokop na pokopališču je bil leta 1967. Med pokopanimi je na pokopališču Charles Marron Fickert (1874-1937) , Domači sin okrožja Kern in veteran kalifornijske narodne garde.

Charles se je izobraževal na javnih šolah v okrožju Kern in na univerzi Stanford, razred '99, diplomiral iz umetnosti. Leta 1901 je bil sprejet v odvetniško zbornico in je obravnaval številne velike primere. Republikanec in aktiven v politiki. Februarja 1904 je bil imenovan za prvega pomočnika tožilca ZDA pri Marshallu Woodworthu. To imenovanje je opravil predsednik Roosevelt na osebno pritožbo Davida Starra Jordana, takratnega predsednika Univerze Stanford. Služil je eno leto in se nato vrnil k zasebni praksi. Leta 1909 je z veliko večino premagal Francis J. Heaneyja za mesto okrožnega tožilca v San Franciscu in na tem položaju deset let, leta 1919 se je upokojil, v zasebno prakso. V tem obdobju je postal nacionalno znan v zadevi Mooney, obsodil je dve osebi zaradi ogromnih verjetnosti in številne druge pomembne primere. Psihično, moralno in fizično je bil velik človek, z izjemnim širokim krogom prijateljev, ki so se nanj gledali kot na enega najsposobnejših odvetnikov v mestu. Bil je 6 čevljev 4 palcev. Do takrat, ko je šel na fakulteto, je bil kavboj na očetovem ranču in bil znan jahač. Vstopil je v nogometno moštvo in pet let igral kot levi stražar pri ekipi Stanford, ki je leta 1898 služil kot kapetan. Bil je član Stanford Parlorja, Native Sons of the Golden West, bil je tudi član reda Benevolent and Protective of Elks, olimpijski klub, češki klub, narodna garda (Kalifornija). Poročil se je 1. marca 1905 v San Franciscu z gospodično Ethel Wallace, hčerko J.H. Wallace, ki je bil inženir južnega Pacifika na oddelku za vzdrževanje poti in se zdaj ukvarja s postavljanjem radijskih postaj na Kitajskem za Federal Telegraph Company. [Vir: "Regija zaliva San Francisco" avtorja Bailey Millard Vol. 3 stran 151-152. Založnik The American Historical Society, Inc. 1924.]

Ugotovljeno je bilo, da so na pokopališču ranča Fickert narejeni naslednji pokopi, kronološko navedeni:

1876 ​​Thomas Fickert (star 10 let), sin Fredericka Williama in Mary (Glynn) Fickert
1882 Frank Fickert, sin Fredericka Williama in Mary (Glynn) Fickert
1884 Adeline (Adie) Fickert (stara 6 let) in Gertie Fickert (stara 2 leti),
hčere Fredericka Williama in Mary (Glynn) Fickert
1914 Frederick William Fickert, pionirski naseljenec ranča Fickert
1917 Louis F. Fickert, sin Fredericka Williama in Mary (Glynn) Fickert
1930 Mary Glynn Fickert, matriarh družine Fickert
1937 Charles Marron Fickert, sin Fredericka Williama in Mary (Glynn) Fickert
1938 Frederick Alford Fickert, sin Fredericka Williama in Mary (Glynn) Fickert
1959 Mary E. (Nellie) Fickert in Louise E. Fickert, hčerki Fredericka Williama
in Mary (Glynn) Fickert
Adolphus Bianchi Približno v tem času je imela Clara Fickert Bianchi njene ostanke
mož, Adolphus se je preselil na pokopališče Fickert Ranch iz njihovega izvirnika
kraj pokopa.
1967 Clara (Clare) Fickert Bianchi, hči Fredericka Williama in Mary (Glynn)
Fickert

Poleg tega je starodobnik tega območja povedal, da so bile tri indijske roke ranča, ki so bile pokopane tudi na pokopališču družine Fickert ali v njegovi bližini.


Pot

V dramatičnem preobratu sovjetski vodja Mihail Gorbačov kaže, da se je pripravljen pogajati o prepovedi jedrskih raket srednjega dosega brez pogojev. Odločitev Gorbačova je utrla pot prelomni pogodbi o jedrskih silah srednjega dosega (INF) z Združenimi državami Amerike.

Gorbačovljeva sprememba stališča je bila posledica številnih dejavnikov. Njegov narod je imel hude gospodarske težave in Gorbačov je obupno želel zmanjšati vojaške izdatke Rusije. Poleg tega je naraščajoče gibanje "ne-nuklearnih jeder" v Evropi motilo njegovo sposobnost vodenja diplomatskih odnosov s Francijo, Veliko Britanijo in drugimi zahodnoevropskimi državami. Nazadnje se je zdelo, da ima Gorbačov iskreno osebno zaupanje in prijateljstvo z Ronaldom Reaganom in ta občutek je bil očitno vzajemen. Decembra 1987 sta na vrhu v Washingtonu oba moža podpisala Pogodbo o jedrskih silah srednjega dosega, ki je odpravila celoten razred jedrskega orožja.

“Gorbachev sprejema prepoved jedrskih raket srednjega dosega. ” 2008. Spletno mesto History Channel. 20. julij 2008, 05:22 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2736.

1376 – Na ta datum naj bi se zgodila legenda o Pied Piperju iz Hamelina, ki vodi podgane iz mesta.

1587 – Na otoku Roanoke pri Severni Karolini je bila ustanovljena druga angleška kolonija. Kolonija je pod skrivnostnimi okoliščinami izginila.

1796 – Cleveland je ustanovil general Moses Cleaveland.

1798 – The Ustava USS je bil prvič v teku in na morju, odkar je bil izstreljen 21. oktobra 1797.

1812 – Angleške čete pod vojvodom Wellingtonom so v bitki pri Salamanci v Španiji premagale Francoze.

1933 – Wiley Post je končal let okoli sveta. V 7 dneh, 18 urah in 45 minutah je prepotoval 15.596 milj.

1937 – Senat ZDA je zavrnil predlog predsednika Roosevelta, da se vrhovnemu sodišču doda več sodnikov.

1943 in#8211 so ameriške sile pod vodstvom generala Georgea S. Pattona zavzele Palermo na Siciliji.

1946 – 90 ljudi je bilo ubitih, ko so judovski ekstremisti razstrelili krilo hotela King David v Jeruzalemu.

1955 – Podpredsednik ZDA Richard M. Nixon je vodil sejo vlade v Washingtonu, DC. To je bilo prvič, da je podpredsednik opravil nalogo.

1991 – Policija je aretirala Jeffreyja Dahmerja, potem ko je v njegovem stanovanju v Milwaukeeju našel posmrtne ostanke 11 žrtev. Dahmer je priznal 17 umorov in bil obsojen na dosmrtno ječo.

1998 in#8211 Iran je preizkusil raketo srednjega dosega, ki je lahko dosegla Izrael ali Savdsko Arabijo.

2003 – Na severu Iraka sta sinova Sadama Huseina Odai in Qusai umrla po streljanju z ameriškimi silami.

Battle of Atlanta continues

Confederate General John Bell Hood continues to try to drive General William T. Sherman from the outskirts of Atlanta when he attacks the Yankees on Bald Hill. The attack failed, and Sherman tightened his hold on Atlanta.

The Preparedness Day bombing

In San Francisco, a bomb at a Preparedness Day parade on Market Street kills 10 people and wounds 40. The bomb was hidden in a suitcase. The parade was organized by the city’s Chamber of Commerce in support of America’s possible entrance into World War I. San Francisco was suffering through severe labor strife at the time, and many suspected that anti-war labor radicals were responsible for the terrorist attack.

Labor leader Tom Mooney, his wife Rena, his assistant Warren K. Billings, and two others were soon charged by District Attorney Charles Fickert with the bombing. The case attracted international interest because all evidence, with the exception of a handful of questionable witness accounts, seemed to point unquestionably to their innocence. Even after confessions of perjured testimony were made in the courtroom, the trial continued, and in 1917 Mooney and Billings were convicted of first-degree murder, with Billings sentenced to life imprisonment and Mooney sentenced to hang. The other three defendants were acquitted. Responding to international outrage at the conviction, President Woodrow Wilson set up a “mediation commission” to investigate the case, and no clear evidence of their guilt was found. In 1918, Mooney’s sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.

During the next two decades, many groups and individuals petitioned California to grant the two men a new trial. By 1939, when evidence of perjury and false testimony at the trial had become overwhelming, newly elected Governor Culbert Olson pardoned Mooney and commuted Billing’s sentence to time served. Billings was not officially pardoned until 1961.

Dillinger gunned down

Outside Chicago’s Biograph Theatre, notorious criminal John Dillinger–America’s “Public Enemy No. 1”–is killed in a hail of bullets fired by federal agents. In a fiery bank-robbing career that lasted just over a year, Dillinger and his associates robbed 11 banks for more than $300,000, broke jail and narrowly escaped capture multiple times, and killed seven police officers and three federal agents.

Deportations from Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka begin

On this day in 1942, the systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto begins, as thousands are rounded up daily and transported to a newly constructed concentration/extermination camp at Treblinka, in Poland.


Preparedness Day bombing

Fickert was in office in 1916 and drew national attention and scandal for his prosecution of labor leaders Thomas Mooney and Warren K. Billings during the Preparedness Day Bombing. Witnesses claimed Fickert coached them to perjure themselves in subsequent hearings in order to defend the original convictions. Α] Fickert continued his battles with his fists, first against Heney at the Olympic Club and later against editor Fremont Older at the Palace Hotel.

A 1919 grand jury exonerated Fickert from charges made by John B. Densmore, investigator from Washington, Director General of Employment, in the framing of Mooney and Billings and for his having conspired with Pete McDonough in the freeing of wealthy defendants. President Theodore Roosevelt declared, "anyone assailing Fickert for prosecuting anarchists should be deprived of citizenship".


Political career

Admitted to the California Bar in 1895 in Los Angeles, he arrived in San Francisco and joined the law offices of Edward Robeson Taylor, who soon replaced Mayor Eugene E. Schmitz when Schmitz was indicted during the graft trials.

Fickert's first public office was assistant United States Attorney, serving for two years. He then successfully opposed special prosecutor for the DA's office Francis J. Heney for DA in the fall of 1909. He was regularly reelected until defeat by Matthew Brady in 1920. In 1918, he ran for the Republican nomination for Governor of California, but was defeated by incumbent William Stephens. [2]


Letters to an Old Friend

Within two months, an old friend of Frank Oxman named Ed Rigall tried to sell the prosecutors several letters that Oxman had written him soon after the bombing, inviting him to San Francisco to swear that he had been with Oxman at the parade. It turned out that Oxman had arrived in the city four hours after the bombing and later, upon learning that the reward for information leading to the conviction of the perpetrator had climbed to $15,350, had had another friend inform Cunha that he, Oxman, was available as a witness.

Mooney's defense team got hold of the letters and published them. Subsequently the juries in Weinberg's and Rena Mooney's trials for complicity in the bomb murders found them each not guilty. Oxman was tried for subornation of perjury and acquitted. Meanwhile, Mooney sat on death row in San Quentin prison. In March 1918, the California Supreme Court upheld his conviction. Execution was set for August 23. President Woodrow Wilson appealed to the California governor, William D. Stephens. Demonstrations on Mooney's behalf were being held around the world. William Randolph Hearst, reversing the support his papers had given District Attorney Fickert, announced that Mooney should not be put to death. "Mooney Day" was celebrated nationwide in July, with speeches by top labor leaders and liberals, and the governor approved a reprieve. In November, Judge Griffin proposed a pardon and retrial. Two weeks before the scheduled hanging, the governor commuted Mooney's sentence to life imprisonment.

For 20 more years, attempts were made to free Mooney through legal channels. But California had an outdated system for review of convictions, and the courts declared there was no procedure that could give him a new trial based on the evident perjury. Every governor during these two decades refused to take the political risk involved in freeing the radical. From his prison cell, Mooney himself interfered with his lawyers, passing up at least one chance to ask for parole.

In 1939, Democratic Governor C. L. Olson, five days after his inauguration, gave Mooney an unconditional pardon. San Francisco then saw another Market Street parade — a victory procession with Tom and Rena Mooney, with the mayor, and prominent labor leaders at the head.

Mooney lived only three more years. For most of that time, he was bedridden with illnesses contracted in prison.

Bernard Ryan, Jr.


Charles Fickert - History

Market and Steuart Streets moments before the Preparedness Day Bombing, July 22, 1916. This picture was suppressed by the prosecution for 20 years. The arrow points to what some think may have been the actual bomber.

Photo: courtesy Bancroft Library

On July 22, 1916, the "Preparedness Day" parade through San Francisco—organized by anti-union city and business officials to rally support for US participation in WWI—was bombed in the worst attack in San Francisco history. The District Attorney's office, which had close ties with business interests opposed to unionism, accused labor leaders of being the perpetrators. In particular, they singled out Tom Mooney, an infamous militant San Francisco labor leader, and sentenced him to the death penalty despite having evidence of his innocence. It took pressure from President Wilson to commute the death sentence, and a further 22 years in jail for Mooney to be pardoned.

July 22, 1916 "Preparedness Day:" A turning point in labor history for San Francisco and perhaps for the entire United States.

A large parade up San Francisco's Market Street had been organized by the Chamber of Commerce and the conservative business establishment to drum up patriotism and support for U.S. entry into the European war (WWI). In addition to the war in Europe, U.S. troops were already gathering at Nogales to invade Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa, Irish immigrants were busy raising money and arms to support Irish independence, just three months after the Easter Rebellion in Ireland, a bloody strike on San Francisco's waterfront had killed a man and left dozens injured only a month earlier. At 2:06 pm, as marchers were entering Market Street from Steuart, a bomb exploded, killing ten and critically injuring 40 more.

A militant San Francisco labor leader, Tom Mooney, his wife Rena, a radical worker named Warren K. Billings, and two others were soon charged with the crime. Then District Attorney Charles Fickert had been elected in 1909 with a secret fund of $100,000 put up by United Railroads, a company formed in 1903 when Patrick Calhoun bought up most of the city's streetcar lines and merged them into one company. One of DA Fickert's first acts was the dismissal of corruption charges pending against Calhoun, his chief counsel and his chief assistant, thereby ending the famous graft trials which had brought down political boss Abe Ruef and previous Mayor Schmitz.

Tom Mooney had real evidence of his innocence, but was denied a new trial or pardon for 22 years. At 2:01 p.m. on July 22, 1916, a photo by Wade Hamilton places Tom and Rena Mooney on the Eilers Buildng at 975 Market, at the time they were allegedly placing the bomb a mile east at Steuart and Market. This photograph was in the possession of the prosecutors but was never presented at trial.

Photo: courtesy Bancroft Library

Mooney had been a major actor in numerous strikes and organizing campaigns. By the end of 1915 he'd become a thorn in the side of the San Francisco Labor Council as much as the Chamber of Commerce with his radical calls for industrial unionism Pacific Gas & Electric and its then subsidiaries (San Joaquin Light & Power Co., Western Electric Co., Sierra & SF Power Co.) considered him a dangerous foe after a big strike from May 1913 through January 1914.

1908 photo of radicals, including Tom Mooney, 2nd from right, and Socialist Presidential candidate Eugene Debs, third from right.

Photo: provenance unknown

In late 1915, Mooney had targeted the anti-union United Railroads for organizing. In 1916, California had two major cities, San Francisco and Los Angeles, the former known as the most unionized city in America, the latter as a bastion of conservatism and the most open shop (i.e. non-union) city in the country. San Francisco's Chamber of Commerce keenly felt the difference, as new investment was mostly heading south to Los Angeles and the land of cheap, abundant labor.

Between June 9, 1916 and July 17, the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce claimed that 38 "non-union workers" [scabs] were sent to the hospital because of attacks by striking longshoremen. Two strikers were dead. In this violent atmosphere the Chamber issued its first public endorsement of the open shop on June 22, 1916. On July 10, a meeting of over 2,000 merchants packed the floor of the Merchant's Exchange and endorsed the creation of a standing "Law and Order Committee" of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce to "rid San Francisco of anarchistic elements." By year-end the Law and Order Committee had a fund at its disposal of $1 million.

Behind the scenes was one Martin Swanson, a detective with a long involvement in strikes, and various labor confrontations in San Francisco, mostly working for PG&E, the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co. (later PacBell), and other utilities and railroads. Swanson had spent a couple of months trying to frame Mooney for a bombing of PG&E power lines just south of San Francisco on San Bruno mountain, offering bribes of $5,000 to several of Mooney's allies. He also maintained constant surveillance and harassment of Mooney, Billings, and the anarchists Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, who were living at 569 Dolores in the Mission District.

One of the many efforts to publicize the Mooney case, this one in 1929.

Tom Mooney in his cell in San Quentin (c. 1932)

Image: Bancroft Library

Agitational writing in 1938 that successful led to Mooney's pardon in 1939 by new Governor Culbert Olson.

After the Preparedness Day bombing, Swanson was appointed as investigator for the (clearly corrupt) District Attorney that same evening. Over the next two years it was gradually revealed that Martin Swanson was the man primarily responsible for finding and coaching false witnesses against Mooney and Billings. Tom Mooney was tried first, and based on the false evidence, convicted of first degree murder and given the death sentence. Some time later Warren Billings was tried, and though some of the testimony had already been discredited, he too was convicted of first degree murder but given a life sentence. The three other alleged co-conspirators were tried later and all acquitted as the fraudulent case against them had collapsed by then.

Mooney had his death sentence commuted to life in prison by California's governor under pressure from President Woodrow Wilson in 1917. It took another 22 and a half years before Tom Mooney was granted an unconditional pardon by newly-elected liberal Democratic governor Culbert Olson in January, 1939. Warren Billings would receive his release from prison in 1942.

Mooney appeals for his release in 1933 (video)

Frame-up by Curt Gentry, © 1967, WW Norton & Co., New York.

Life of an Anarchist: The Alexander Berkman Reader, ur. Gene Fellner, Four Walls Eight Windows, New York: 1992.


Louis Frederick Fickert (1863 - 1917)

In 1900, Louis F Fickert age 37 and single was living in Township 2, Tehachapi, Rock Pile, Cummings Valley, Keene, and Tejon Canon Precincts, Kern, California with his parents, four siblings and four servents. [4]

In 1910, Lewis F Fiekert age 47 was single and living in Township 2, Kern, California with his parents, four siblings and two hired men. [5]

Obituary

The Mojave Press Sept. 7, 1917

Louis F. Fickert Thrown From His Horse and Killed

Louis F. Fickert, member of a well-known Tehachapi family, met a violent death last Monday afternoon, when he was thrown from his horse on a Bear Mountain trail. From an investigation by Dr. N.J. Brown, Fred Fickert, and Coroner Dixon, it appears that the deceased was riding on a mountain in search of some cattle, when his horse slipped on a steep incline. The rider was thrown out of the saddle, hitting the rocky surface of the hill on the side of his head and breaking his neck. The body rolled about 120 feet down the hill and struck on a ______ of rocks, which fractured the neck. The body was found Tuesday afternoon, badly decomposed, by Dr. Brown, Fred Fickert and one of Fickerts men, who went in search of Louis when he failed to appear at the time he promised to be home.

Members of the family in San Francisco include Charles Fickert, San Francisco's district attorney, and three sisters, Mrs. Biancki and the Misses Nellie and Louisa Fickert. Undertaker __________of San Francisco, took charge of the remains and made the funeral arrangements. Interment was made in the family cemetery lot, on the farm, west of Tehachapi. The deceased was 53 years and 11 months old.

The sorrowing family have the sympathy of the whole community, where _______ was so well-known.


Charles Fickert - History

After the Russian Revolution, a red scare developed in the United States. Government officials led by Attorney General Palmer were convinced that radical communist was going to try to overthrow the government. In reaction, Palmer led raids between November 1919 and January 1920 arresting people with suspected radical ties. As a result of the raid 500, foreign citizens were deported. Others were arrested, but the courts did not support the arrests.


As a result of the Russian Revolution of 1917, some members of the US government became fearful that radicals in the United States would try to overthrow the US government. Among those most concerned was Attorney General Palmer. Palmer was convicted that radial Italian and Eastern European Jewish immigrants were communist supporters and were ready and willing to lead a revolution.

The concern was not without some basis in late April 1919 bobs were mailed to prominent businessman and politicians. The following people were targeted:

Theodore G. Bilbo, Governor of Mississippi
Frederick Bullmers, editor, Jackson, Mississippi Daily News
Albert S. Burleson, Postmaster General of the United States
John L. Burnett, U.S. Representative, Alabama
Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner General of Immigration
Edward A. Cunha, Assistant District Attorney, San Francisco
Richard Edward Enright, Police Commissioner, New York City
T. Larry Eyre, Pennsylvania state senator
Charles M. Fickert, District Attorney, San Francisco
Rayme Weston Finch, field agent, Bureau of Investigation
Ole Hanson, Mayor of Seattle, Washington
Thomas W. Hardwick, former U.S. Senator, Georgia
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr, United States Supreme Court justice
Frederic C. Howe, Port of New York Commissioner of Immigration
John F. Hylan, mayor, New York City
Albert Johnson, U.S. Representative, Washington
William H. King, U.S. Senator, Utah
William H. Lamar, Solicitor of the Post Office
Kenesaw Mountain Landis, U.S. District Judge, Chicago
J. P. Morgan, Jr., businessman
Frank Knowlton Nebeker, Special Assistant to the Attorney General
Lee S. Overman, U.S. Senator, North Carolina
A. Mitchell Palmer, Attorney General of the United States
John D. Rockefeller, businessman
William I. Schaffer, Attorney General, Pennsylvania
Walter Scott, mayor, Jackson, Mississippi
Reed Smoot, U.S. Senator, Utah
William C. Sproul, Governor of Pennsylvania
William B. Wilson, United States Secretary of Labor
William Madison Wood, president, American Woolen Company

The only bomb to reach its target was sent to George Senator Thomas Hardwick. It blew off the hands of his housekeeper and wounded his wife. The others were intercepted before they reached their intended targets.

In June 1919 another set of bombs was aimed at eight targets in eight cities. One of the targets was the home of Attorney General Palmer. While none of the bombs killed any of their target Palmer’s home was destroyed mainly and his across the street neighbor Franklin Roosevelt was almost killed. Left behind at each of the bombings was a radical pamphlet.

As a result of these attacks Palmer went to Congress and asked for a $500,000 increase in his budget so he could pursue the radicals, the Congress gave him $100,000. His first raid was against an anarchist group in Buffalo. However, when the case came before a judge, it was tossed out. The judge said the group was planning to transform the government through speech, and speech was protected.

Palmer decided he needed to concentrate on immigrants, immigrants whom he could have deported without a complicated judicial review. On November 7, 1919, agents of the Bureau of Investigation (forerunner of the FBI) conducted raids in 12 cities aimed at the Union of Russian Workers. In New York alone they arrested 650 people of whom 43 were deported.

In January 1920 another set of raids took place. The raids began on January 2, 1920, and continued for six weeks. The raids took place in 30 cities, and a total of 3,000 people were arrested.

In total 10,000 people were arrested, 3,000 held and 556 resident aliens were deported. However, civil liberties advocates began to criticize the actions, and Acting Secretary of Labor Louis Freeland Post started to oppose the raids. Massachusetts District Court Judge George Anderson threw out the charges on many of the those arrested writing: "a mob is a mob, whether made up of Government officials acting under instructions from the Department of Justice or of criminals and loafers and the vicious classes." This effectively ended the raids.


Russian Hill IV Green Street and Macondray Lane

Begin your walk at the intersection of Vallejo and Jones Streets.
Walk north on Jones Street.

1821 Jones, Architects: Albert J. Fabre and Ernest H. Hildebrand, 1916

This three-story house contains two archways on the ground floor, one for the door, one for the garage. The third floor has an interesting balcony on one side and a bay window on the other.

This charming grey stuccoed building, originally a two-family dwelling, looks like a building you might find in Tuscany. We have no information on this building.

At the corner of Green, turn left onto Green Street.

The “Paris Block” (the 1000 block of Green Street), Green Street between Jones and Leavenworth

The “Paris Block” was first identified in print in an article by Margot Patterson Doss in her July 5, 1964 San Francisco Chronicle column. Doss heard this title from neighborhood residents and believed that it referred to the elegant apartment building at 1050 Green which evokes images of similarly styled buildings in Paris.

This block contains twelve buildings on the National Register of Historic Places.

On the south side: 1017-1019, 1025, 1033, 1039-1043, 1045, 1055, and 1067. Much or all of the south side of the block survived the earthquake and fire of 1906.
On the north side: 1030, 1040, 1050, 1060, and 1088.
Each of the twelve buildings is of a different architectural style. This makes this block unique in Russian Hill.

1017-1019 Green, Architect: Ernest H. Hildebrand, 1925

This vaguely Mission Revival duplex, while not outstanding in design, contributes to the historic district in size, scale, and materials. Its original owner, Mrs. Ida Jones Bateman, did not reside in the building.

1025 Green, “Butler-Levaggi House,” Architect: Harvey E. Harris, Jr., 1911

This two-story, high basement building combines a mixture of Mission Revival (stucco facade and three-bay entry arcade), Colonial Revival (overscale dentil molding), and Craftsman (eaves projecting over part of the side arcade). Although not considered outstanding in design, it fits comfortably into the block. The original owner, Louis Butler (a liquor dealer), sold the house to Jules Levaggi about 1917. Levaggi’s descendents owned the house until 1980.

1033 Green, “James S. Cowen House,” Architect unknown, c. 1870, moved to this site c. 1891 by merchant tailor Oliver W. Nordwell

This is a standard upper-middle-class Italianate house. The door may be original but its surround and fanlight are a completely different architectural style. A contemporary third floor, which bears no architectural resemblance to the remainder of the building, was added c.1960. The garage was added in the 1990s. Cowen, the second owner of the building on this site, lived here beginning in 1987. He was a cannery superintendent.

1039-1043 Green, “George Phillips Flats,” Architects: Samuel & Joseph Newsom, 1885

The most distinguishing feature on this house—described by some resources as Italianate, by others as Stick Style—is the elegant s-curved stairway to the second floor entrance. The Newsom brothers were known for far more eccentric designs, such as the Carson House in Eureka, but built this building with a restraint that fits this block. The doors at the entrance to the second floor appear to have been the result of splitting the second and third floors into two flats. Recent work to convert the upper two floors to one flat leads to strong support that this was originally a two-flat building with the upper flat containing the top two floors. Some early published resources such as Here Today suggested that this house might have been moved to this site. Research by Anne Bloomfield for the Paris Block National Register Historic District and William Kostura for Russian Hill: The Summit 1853-1906 conclude that the house was constructed at this site. The house’s original owner, Phillips, was a lumber clerk.

1045 Green, “O’Brien Family House,” c. 1867, remodeled c. 1910

Originally built as an Italianate building, the house underwent many Craftsman additions c.1910 including the shingles and the eight-sided cupola. But you can still see the Italianate features, particularly on the windows. From the front this appears to be a tiny house, but it is actually quite large with a lovely back garden. If you stand on the right side of the house you can get a perspective of the size of the house and garden. Many people have thought that this was originally a schoolhouse or a firehouse but it has always been a single family home. In 1875, John O’Brien, an employment and real estate agent, moved here. His son, Charles W. O’Brien, added the shingles and cupola. He lived here through 1945.

1055 Green, “David Atkins House,” c. 1866, completely reworked c.1915 by Julia Morgan for importer and merchant, David Atkins

Julia Morgan transformed a simple Italianate house into a Beaux Arts villa. The stucco treatment on the facade and the ironwork on the balcony distinguish this building. The entrance is barely noticeable from the street with its recessed entry.

Note that the ironwork treatment on the front balcony is repeated in the gate. The remainder of the iron fence appears to predate Morgan’s work.

1067 Green, “Feusier Octagon House,” c. 1857-1859, mansard roof and cupola added probably in the 1880s

This may be the most distinctive house in Russian Hill. This San Francisco City Landmark (#36) is one of the few remaining octagon houses in the City. The closest remaining octagon house is at Union and Gough Streets which is owned and managed by the Colonial Dames of America. Octagon houses were considered to be healthier to live in by their proponent, phrenologist, Orson S. Fowler.

The original owner of the house was George Kenny. Produce merchant Louis Feusier added the mansard roof. He was a friend of Leland Stanford and Mark Twain.

In the past, neighbors have blocked plans of developers to demolish this house to make way for a larger replacement building. An innovative solution was crafted between one owner, the next door condominium owners, and the neighbors to provide parking for this house in the 1970s or 1980s. A garage was built on the back of the property with automobile access from Leavenworth Street through the condominium driveway next door. This allowed the owner to have a garage without affecting the Green Street facade and side yards.

1101 Green, Architect: H.C. Bauman, 1930

Just outside the historic district, at the southwest corner of Leavenworth and Green Streets, rises a twenty-story concrete-reinforced white Art Deco apartment building. In contrast with the high-rises built in Russian Hill in the 1960s and 1970s, this building adds architectural charm to the neighborhood. There is exceptional detail on the exterior of the building. Peek into the entrance to see the vaulted, heavily-ornamented, neo-Churrigueresque (Spanish) lobby ceiling.

Downhill and next door to 1101 Green are two complexes of Tudor-gabled, bay-windowed apartment buildings sitting atop a high retaining wall. Each has steps leading into an open courtyard. Plans to turn the units into condominiums and to dig into the retaining wall and add garages have been blocked in the past.

1088 Green, “Engine House #31,” Architect: Newton J. Tharp, 1907

After the 1906 earthquake and fire, Newton J. Tharp was named city architect. He was charged with rebuilding city government buildings. He designed this firehouse along with a number of Beaux Arts-style firehouses. This is probably the only firehouse of Craftsman/Tudor Revival style. In 1952, the firehouse was deactivated. In 1958, philanthropist Louise M. Davies bought the firehouse. For many years the firehouse served as the location for Russian Hill Neighbors’ general meetings. In 1978, Mrs. Davies donated the firehouse to the National Trust for Historic Preservation. In the 1990s the Trust sold the firehouse to the Scottish American St. Andrew’s Society. It is a San Francisco City Landmark.

1060 Green, “Charles & Ethel Fickert House,” Architect: Edward T. Foulkes, 1912

This building, originally a single family house, is a four-story loosely Colonial Revival apartment building. The original owner, Charles M. Fickert, was the District Attorney who had the San Francisco graft trials dismissed.

1050 Green, “George A. Bos Apartments,” Architect: Lewis P. Hobart, 1913

This elegant building, now condominiums, was probably responsible for the district’s name, “Paris Block.” It is a five-story Classical Revival building, reminiscent of Parisian apartment buildings. The simple front garden, along with a black wrought-iron front door, give this building a unique graciousness. Louis Hobart, its architect, studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He was nationally known as the designer of many significant buildings, such as San Francisco’s Grace Cathedral.

1040 Green, “Luke J. Flynn House,” Architect: Llewellyn B. Dutton , 1912

This stucco house combines Mission Revival stucco elements with Colonial Revival features. Its original owner was associated with capitalist James L. Flood. A garage, added in 1953, blocks views of the house and breaks up the open front space established by 1050 and 1060 Green.

1030 Green, “John & Blanche Baldwin McGaw House,” Architect: Oscar Haupt, 1913

A brick wall (probably predating the house) and hedge separate this Mission Revival and Pueblo Style house from the street. This two-story stucco house has a fine recessed Tuscan entrance. The house has irregular massing and unique ornamentation. Blanche Baldwin’s father, real estate tycoon Orville Baldwin, owned a house at 1020 Green which was demolished at an undetermined date.

900 BLOCK OF GREEN STREET

This is an exceptionally architecturally diverse block, ranging from the massive 33-story 999 Green to the single-story stucco bungalow with gardens on all sides at 960 Green. The street ends at a cul-de-sac in the middle of the block. From there the public street descends down a long stairway. Just east of Jones Street, at the edge of 999 Green, a large rock outcropping protrudes into the street, narrowing it to a one lane street until it opens back up at a cul-de-sac.

999 Green, “The Summit,” Architects: Claude Oakland and Associates, 1965

This looming residential high-rise was built for Joseph Eichler, developer of much of the stucco housing in San Francisco’s Sunset District in the 1940s and 1950s and the open-beamed, glass and wood alternative to ranch houses on the San Francisco Peninsula in the 1960s. Eichler was the first occupant of the two-story penthouse. Later owners of the penthouse have been Pat Montandon, a figure in San Francisco’s society pages in the 1970s, and more recently George and Charlotte Maillard Shultz. An open dead space above the garage and under the tower may have been an accommodation to residents on Russian Hill Place to allow them to retain some view toward the bay.

982 Green, “Edward A. Huber House,” Architect unknown, 1878

This is the earliest house on this block. It is a rectangular three-unit Italianate building set back on the lot. Its purple paint makes it easy to find. Two carports, obviously not part of the original design, occupy the front sides of the lot. A charming carriage lamp is found in the middle of the open garden space. The Huber family resided here until at least 1930.

960 Green, “Augusta Maeburn House,” Architect: Arthur Laib, 1907

Augusta Maeburn, widowed in 1881, lived on this site from 1890 and rebuilt this stucco bungalow shortly after the 1906 fire. This house is unique on this block for its gardens on all sides.

955 Green, Architect: George Homsey, 1999-2000

This was the last remaining undeveloped property on this block. It is now the site of a six-unit luxury condominium structure with a 23-car garage. The design is Spanish Revival. The building steps down from the western side of the lot from a height equal to the adjoining condominium at 8 Florence Place. George and Putnam Livermore purchased this property, along with the adjoining property at 1020 Vallejo Street, to prevent development of a 50-story apartment building on this site. They commissioned Homsey to design two properties: the award-winning shingle-style 1020 Vallejo and the Spanish-style 955 Green.

940 Green, “Charles Lux Lewis House,” Architect: John K. Banner, 1922

This elegant large stucco house has recently undergone significant renovation. The work reinforced the original design. The house, with a raised entry on its left/east side, has interesting massing on many planes, in addition to many roof elements and shapes covered with tiles and other elements of Mission/Spanish Colonial Revival style. This is certainly the best and most uniquely designed house in this block.

945 Green, Architect unknown, late 1920s

This was the earliest of the mid- to high-rise buildings on this part of Russian Hill. This tall apartment building cut off the northwestern views of 1000 Vallejo Street. Glej spodaj.

947 Green, Architects: Bos and Quandt, 1927-1929

This apartment building is known as the “spite building.” (Not to be confused with the 30-foot “spite fence” that Charles Crocker built around the property of Nicolas Yung in the Nob Hill block that currently houses Grace Cathedral. Yung was the only holdout in Crocker’s mansion block and refused to sell his small property to Crocker.)

The owner of 1000 Vallejo Street built this buiilding to protest the loss of northern and northwestern views from 1000 Vallejo Street by the building at 945 Green Street. The building is L-shaped and higher than 945 Green. It blocks the eastern and southeastern views of 945 Green. The best perspective to understand this is to view the back of 947 Green from the balustrade at 1020 Vallejo Street.

This is a beautiful building with many full-floor condominiums. Elevators open into elegant foyers. The ceilings are high, rooms are large, underlying details are exceptional, and the views are outstanding.

There are two ways to proceed with this walk from here.

The first is down the Green Street steps, left on Taylor Street to Macondray Lane, then left up the wooden stairs at Macondray Lane. This is a more rigorous route, but affords views of an elegant Queen Anne house at 1809 Taylor Street.

The less rigorous way to continue the walk is to retrace your path back to Jones Street. Turn right on Jones, then right on Macondray Lane, go to the steps at the Taylor Street end of Macondray Lane, then turn around and retrace your steps on Macondray back to Jones.

The text for this walk will follow the first path down the Green Street steps. Just after starting down the steps, notice a small gate leading to what appears to be a small Japanese-style cottage.

900 Green, Architect unknown, c.1989

As you proceed down the stairs you will see a new, undistinguished condominium building on the left. It replaced a complex of deteriorated shingle buildings, apartments, and houses that were built from 1895 to 1906 for Dr. J. Mora-Moss. The current building, with an entrance on Taylor Street, actually exceeded its building permit’s height limit. After considerable negotiation between the neighbors, builders, and The City, the only “fix” was to reduce the height of the elevator shaft. This building is the first and only building built after the 40-foot height limit was imposed in Russian Hill in 1971 to exceed that limit.

At the bottom of the steps, turn left onto Taylor Street.

1809 Taylor, “Luigi DeMartini House,” Architect: William Mooser, 1895

This house survived the fire of 1906 along with its near neighbor at 15-17 Macondray Lane. This Queen Anne-style house sits on a retaining wall over a steeply sloped street at the edge of Macondray Lane. The entrance on the left is below a gable while the right side has a turreted circular bay window. DeMartini, a successful Italian American confectioner’s supplier, was a close friend and supporter of A.P. Giannini in establishing the Bank of Italy (predecessor of Bank of America).

Sandwiched between Green and Union Streets and between Taylor and Leavenworth Streets, Macondray Lane is a secret find. The block between Jones and Taylor is most significant. Macondray Lane has long captured the hearts of San Franciscans and visitors for its woodsy enclave with charming cottages, interesting new buildings, and most special of all, gardens on the south side of the public path. As you traverse the lane you will find many different garden areas, yet they all seem to fit together. This was an early enclave for artists and writers including Ina Coolbrith and, for many years, some of the city’s leading newspapermen. In 1912, its name was changed from “Lincoln” to “Macondray” to honor pioneer San Francisco merchant Frederick W. Macondray. The informal landscaped gardens began early in the twentieth century.

In the late 1970s, Macondray Lane was memorialized as “Barbary Lane” in Armisted Maupin’s Tales of the City. Tales of the City included the story of one of the major characters, Mrs. Madrigal, chaining herself to the wooden Taylor Street stairs to prevent the City from replacing them with concrete steps. Perhaps just another incident of preservation in Russian Hill—fact, fiction, or both? At least the recently rebuilt stairs are wooden.

15-17 Macondray Lane, “Giuseppe Cadenasso Flats,” Architect unknown, c.1872-1892 depending on the historic resource

This is the sole Macondray Lane survivor of the 1906 fire—a very simple rectangular plan building with baroque garlands of plaster draped across each of its two front doors. One source suggests that this building was pre-built and shipped around the “Horn.” Its second owner, Cadenasso (resident from 1908-1918) was a major California landscape painter and taught in the art department at Mills College in Oakland. Important to note is that this house and the DeMartini house next door on Taylor Street are the furthest west homes of prominent Italians, who primarily settled in North Beach.


Poglej si posnetek: Changemaker Forum Part 4 - Where Does Change Come From? (Januar 2022).