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Zgodovina Castine - Zgodovina

Zgodovina Castine - Zgodovina

Castine I, II

Mesto v Maineu.

(Gbt: dp. 1.177; 1. 204 '; b. 32'1 "; dr. 12'; kpl. 154; a.
8 4 "rf., 4 6-pdr.)

Castine, topniško čoln, so 11. maja 1892 izstrelili Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; pod pokroviteljstvom gospodične M. Hichborn, naročena 22. oktobra 1894, poveljnik T. Perry; in poročali Atlantski floti

Castine, dodeljena južnemu Atlantiku, je februarja 1896 očistila vode Nove Anglije. Klicala je na Azore in Gibraltar. prečkala Sueški prekop, obiskala Zanzibar in Mozambik ter zaokrožila Cape of Good Hope, preden je 13. oktobra 1895 prispela na postajo v Pernambucu v Braziliji.

Po izbruhu špansko-ameriške vojne je bila Castine poklicana proti severu, da bi zasedla blokado okoli Kube marca 1898. Služila je silam, ki so spremljale vojsko pri transportu Kube, in je do konca vojne ostala na Karibih. g

Decembra 1898 je Castine odplula iz Bostona za Sueški prekop na poti na Daljni vzhod. Ob prihodu na filipinske otoke je začela službovati
usklajevanje z vojsko za ukinitev upora po špansko-ameriški vojni. Delovala je predvsem na južnem otoku in je nadzorovala evakuacijo španske posadke pri Zamboangi
maja 1899. S križarjenjem po kitajskih pristaniščih leta 1900; Castine je ostala na Daljnem vzhodu do junija 1901, ko je odšla na Sueški prekop in vzhodno obalo.

Castine je bila med 8. oktobrom 1901 in 12. novembrom 1903. v Philadelphiji opuščena. Ob ponovnem zagonu je videla dolžnost v južnem Atlantiku, Sredozemlju in na Karibih, od 23. septembra 1905 do 4. oktobra 1908 pa je bila spet brez službe, v Portsmouthu, N.H.

Od oktobra 1908 do maja 1913 je Castine služila kot razpis za podmornice na ozemljih vzhodne obale, nato pa se je vrnila na Karibe do julija 1917. Patrulja in zaščita ameriških interesov v Mehiki sta našli njena križarjenja Vera Cruz in Tampico.

5. avgusta 1917 je Castine odplula, da bi se pridružila patruljnim silam na Gibraltarju, kjer je služila do 21. decembra 1918. Vrnila se je v ZDA, 28. avgusta 1919 pa je bila odpuščena v New Orleansu. Castine so prodali 5. avgusta 1921.

II PC-452 (q.v.) Se je 10. marca 1945 preimenoval in prerazvrstil v Castine (IX-211).


Genealogy Penobscot (v okrožju Hancock, ME)

OPOMBA: Dodatne zapise, ki veljajo za Penobscot, najdete tudi na straneh County Hancock in Maine.

Penobscot rojstni zapisi

Maine, Zapisi o rojstvu, 1892-danes Maine Department of Health and Human Services

Rekord pokopališča Penobscot

Penobscot Census Records

Zvezni popis 1940, Penobscot, Maine LDS Genealogy

Zvezni popis Združenih držav Amerike, družinsko iskanje 1790-1940

Penobscot Death Records

Maine, Smrtni zapisi, od leta 1892 do danes oddelek za zdravje in socialne zadeve Maine

Zgodovine in rodoslovje Penobscot

Penobscot Immigration Records

Penobscot Land Records

Penobscot Marriage Records

Maine, Zakonski zapisi, 1892-danes Maine Department of Health and Human Services

Penobscot Miscellaneous Records

Časopisi in osmrtnice Penobscot

Zapisniški zapisi Penobscot

Penobscot School Records

Penobscot, razred srednje šole ME Clark iz starih letnikov iz leta 1936

Davčni zapisi Penobscot

Dodatki ali popravki na tej strani? Veseli bomo vaših predlogov na naši strani za stik z nami


Vsebina

Najstarejša kultura, ki je živela v Maineu, od približno 3000 pred našim štetjem do 1000 pr. Sledila jim je kultura Susquehanna, ki je prva uporabila keramiko.

V času evropskega odkritja so bili prebivalci Maine albakijsko govoreči Wabanaki, vključno z Abenaki, Passamaquoddy in Penobscots.

Prvi Evropejci, ki so raziskovali obalo Maine, so pluli pod poveljstvom portugalskega raziskovalca Estêvãa Gomesa v službi španskega cesarstva leta 1525. Kartirali so obalo (vključno z reko Penobscot), vendar se niso naselili. Prvo evropsko naselje na tem območju je leta 1604 na otoku St. Croix dosegla francoska stranka, v kateri je bil tudi Samuel de Champlain. Francozi so območje poimenovali Acadia. Francoski in angleški naseljenci so se borili v osrednjem Maineu do leta 1750 (ko so bili Francozi poraženi v francoski in indijski vojni). Francozi so prek katoliških misijonarjev razvili in vzdrževali močne odnose z lokalnimi indijskimi plemeni.

Angleški kolonisti, ki jih je sponzorirala družba Plymouth, so leta 1607 ustanovili naselje v Maineu (kolonija Popham v Phippsburgu), ki pa je bilo naslednje leto opuščeno. Francosko trgovsko mesto je na mestu današnje Castine leta 1613 ustanovil Claude de Saint-Étienne de la Tour in lahko predstavlja prvo stalno evropsko naselje v Novi Angliji. Kolonija Plymouth, ustanovljena na obali zaliva Cape Cod leta 1620, je v 1620 -ih letih ustanovila konkurenčno trgovsko mesto v zalivu Penobscot.

Ozemlje med rekama Merrimack in Kennebec se je prvič imenovalo provinca Maine v zemljiškem patentu iz leta 1622, ki sta ga podelila Sir Ferdinando Gorges in John Mason. Oba sta si razdelila ozemlje vzdolž reke Piscataqua v paktu iz leta 1629, ki je povzročil, da so provinco New Hampshire ustanovili Masoni na jugu, New Somersetshire pa soteske na severu, v današnjem jugozahodnem Maineu. Sedanja okrožje Somerset v Maine ohranja to zgodnjo nomenklaturo.

Eden prvih angleških poskusov poselitve obale Maine je bil Christopher Levett, agent za soteske in član sveta Plymouth za Novo Anglijo. Potem ko je Levett na mestu današnjega Portlanda v zvezni državi Maine zagotovil kraljevo štipendijo za 24 km 2 zemljišča, je Levett zgradil kamnito hišo in za seboj pustil skupino moških, ko se je leta 1623 vrnil v Anglijo, da bi priskrbel podporo njegovo naselje, ki ga je po mestu v Angliji svojega rojstva poimenoval "York". Lokalni Abenaki, ki so ga prvotno imenovali Machigonne, so ga poznejši naseljenci poimenovali Falmouth in je danes znan kot Portland. [2] Levettova poravnava, tako kot kolonija Popham, tudi ni uspela, moških, ki jih je Levett zapustil, pa nikoli več niso slišali. Levett je sicer odplul čez Atlantik, da bi se leta 1630 v Salemu srečal z guvernerjem kolonije Massachusettskega zaliva Johnom Winthropom, vendar je umrl na povratnem potovanju, ne da bi se kdaj vrnil v svoje naselje.

Kolonija New Somersetshire je bila majhna in leta 1639 je Gorges prejel drugi patent Karla I., ki pokriva isto ozemlje kot naselje Gorges iz leta 1629 z Masonom. Drugi napor Gorgesa je povzročil ustanovitev več naselij ob obali južnega Mainea in vzdolž reke Piscataqua z uradno vlado pod njegovim oddaljenim sorodstvom, Thomas Gorges. Spor o mejah druge dotacije za zemljo je privedel do kratkotrajne tvorbe Lygonije na ozemlju, ki je obsegalo veliko območje dotacije Soteske. Province Maine in Lygonia v soteskah sta bili do leta 1658. vključeni v kolonijo Massachusettskega zaliva. Trditev Massachusettsa bi bila leta 1676 razveljavljena, vendar je Massachusetts znova uveljavil nadzor z nakupom teritorialnih zahtev dedičev sotesk.

Leta 1669 je Charles II podaril ozemlje med rekama Kennebec in St. Croix svojemu bratu Jakobu, vojvodi od Yorka. Po pogojih te podpore je bilo vse ozemlje od reke Saint Lawrence do Atlantskega oceana sestavljeno kot okrožje Cornwall in je bilo upravljano kot del vojvodine lastniške province New York. Ta nepovratna sredstva so v kombinaciji z ozemlji, ki jih je zahteval Massachusetts (imenovan okrožje York), zajemala ves današnji Maine.

Leta 1674 so Nizozemci na kratko osvojili Akadijo in kolonijo preimenovali v New Holland.

Leta 1686 je James, zdaj kralj, ustanovil oblast Nove Anglije. Ta politična entiteta je sčasoma združila vsa ozemlja, ki jih je obdržala Anglija, od zaliva Delaware do reke St. Croix. Gospodarstvo je propadlo leta 1689, leta 1692 pa je ozemlje med Piscataqua in St. Croix postalo del nove province Massachusetts Bay kot Yorkshire, ime, ki je ohranjeno v današnji okrožju York.

Colonial Wars Edit

Za Angleže je bilo vzhodno od reke Kennebec v 17. stoletju znano kot ozemlje Sagadahocka, vendar so Francozi to območje vključili kot del Akadije. Prevladovala so plemena konfederacije Wabanaki, ki so podpirala Akadijo. [3] Edina pomembnejša evropska prisotnost je bila v Fort Pentagouetu, francoskem trgovskem središču, ustanovljenem leta 1613, pa tudi misijonarji na reki Kennebec in reki Penobscot. Utrdba Pentagouet je bila na kratko glavno mesto Akadije (1670–1674), da bi zaščitila francoske terjatve do ozemlja. Preden so Angleži v vojni očeta Raleja končno zavzeli regijo, so bile štiri vojne.

V prvi vojni, vojni kralja Philipsa, so sodelovala nekatera plemena konfederacije Wabanaki in uspešno preprečila angleška naselja na svojem ozemlju. Med naslednjo vojno so bili zlasti aktivni vojna kralja Williama, baron St. Castin v Fort Pentagouetu in francoski jezuitski misijonar Sébastien Rale. Ponovno je konfederacija Wabanaki izvedla uspešno kampanjo proti angleškim naseljencem zahodno od reke Kennebec. Leta 1696 so francoske sile oblegale glavni obrambni objekt na tem ozemlju, Fort William Henry v Pemaquidu (današnji Bristol). Ozemlje je bilo v vojni kraljice Ane (1702–1713) spet na prvih črtah s kampanjo proti severovzhodni obali.

Naslednji in zadnji spopad zaradi meje med Novo Anglijo in Akadijo je bila vojna očeta Rala. Med vojno je Konfederacija sprožila dve kampanji proti britanskim naseljencem zahodno od Kennebeca (1723, 1724). Rale in številne poglavice so leta 1724 pri Norridgewocku ubile sile Nove Anglije, kar je privedlo do propada francoskih zahtevkov za Maine.

Med vojno kralja Georgea so člani konfederacije Wabanaki vodili tri akcije proti britanskim naseljencem v Maineu (1745, 1746, 1747).

Med zadnjo kolonialno vojno, francosko in indijsko vojno, so člani Konfederacije znova izvedli številne vdore v Maine iz Akadije/ Nove Škotske. Akadska milica je napadla britanska naselja Swan's Island, Maine in današnje Friendship, Maine in Thomaston, Maine. Francis Noble je po ujetju na Labodjem otoku napisal njeno pripoved o ujetništvu. [4] [5] 9. junija 1758 so Indijanci napadli Woolwich v zvezni državi Maine, pri čemer so ubili člane družine Preble, druge pa ujeli v Quebec. [6] Ta incident je postal znan kot zadnji spopad na reki Kennebec.

Po porazu francoske kolonije Acadia je ozemlje od vzhodne reke Penobscot padlo pod nominalno oblast province Nova Škotska in skupaj s sedanjim New Brunswickom ustanovilo okrožje Nova Scotia v Sunburyju s svojim generalnim sodiščem. seje na otoku Campobello.

Konec 18. stoletja je bilo nekaj lotov v Maineu, ki je bil takrat del Massachusettsa, razprodanih z loterijo. Dva zemljišča s 1.000.000 hektarji (4.000 km 2), enega na jugovzhodu Mainea in drugega na zahodu, je kupil bogati filadelfijski bankir William Bingham. Ta dežela je postala znana kot nakup Bingham. [7]

Maine je bil v času ameriške revolucije središče domoljublja, z manj zvestobne dejavnosti kot večina kolonij. [8] Trgovci so upravljali 52 ladij, ki so služile kot zasebniki, ki so napadali britanske ladje za oskrbo. [9] Zlasti Machias je bil center zasebništva in dejavnosti Patriot. To je bilo mesto zgodnjega pomorskega spopada, ki je povzročil zajetje majhnega plovila Kraljevske mornarice. Jonathan Eddy je leta 1776 vodil neuspeli poskus zavzetja utrdbe Cumberland v Novi Škotski. Leta 1777 je Eddy vodil obrambo Machiasa pred napadom kraljeve mornarice.

Kapetan Henry Mowat iz kraljeve mornarice je med vojno vodil operacije ob obali Maine. Razstavil je Fort Pownall ob izlivu reke Penobscot in leta 1775 požgal Falmouth [10] (današnji Portland). Njegov ugled v tradicijah Maine je brezsrčen in brutalen, vendar zgodovinarji ugotavljajo, da je svojo dolžnost opravljal dobro in v skladu z etiko tega obdobja. [11]

New Ireland Edit

Leta 1779 so Britanci sprejeli strategijo, da zavzamejo dele Mainea, zlasti okoli zaliva Penobscot, in jo spremenijo v novo kolonijo "Nova Irska". Shemo so spodbujali lojalisti v izgnanstvu dr. John Calef (1725–1812) in John Nutting (fl. 1775–85) ter Anglež William Knox (1732–1810). Nameraval je biti stalna kolonija lojalistov in oporišče za vojaške akcije med vojno. Načrt je na koncu propadel zaradi pomanjkanja zanimanja britanske vlade in odločenosti Američanov, da ohranijo ves Maine. [12]

Julija 1779 je britanski general Francis McLean zavzel Castine in na polotoku Bagaduce na vzhodni strani zaliva Penobscot zgradil Fort George. Commonwealth Massachusetts je poslal penobscotsko ekspedicijo pod vodstvom generala Massachusettsa Solomona Lovella in kapitana kontinentalne mornarice Dudleyja Saltonstalla. Američanom med 21-dnevnim obleganjem ni uspelo izriniti Britancev, zato so jih prihod britanskih okrepitev ubili. Kraljevska mornarica je preprečila pobeg po morju, zato so domoljubci požgali svoje ladje v bližini današnjega Bangorja in se odpravili domov. [13] Maine kljub reorganizirani obrambi in uvedbi vojnega stanja na izbranih območjih ni mogel odbiti britanske grožnje. Nekatera najbolj vzhodna mesta so poskušala postati nevtralna. [14]

Po podpisu miru leta 1783 je bil predlog Nove Irske opuščen. Leta 1784 so Britanci odcepili New Brunswick od Nove Škotske in ga naredili v želeno kolonijo lojalistov, s spoštovanjem do kralja in cerkve ter z zatiranjem republikanizma. Skoraj so ga poimenovali "Nova Irska". [15]

Pariška pogodba, ki je končala vojno, je bila dvoumna glede meje med Maineom in sosednjimi britanskimi provincami New Brunswick in Quebec. To bo pol stoletja kasneje postavilo temelje za brezkrvno "vojno Aroostook".

Med vojno 1812 je Maine utrpel posledice vojskovanja manj kot večina delov Nove Anglije. Na začetku vojne je bilo nekaj kanadskih zasebniških akcij in nadlegovanje kraljeve mornarice vzdolž obale. Septembra 1813, nepozaben boj pri Pemaquidu med HMS Boksar in USS Podjetje pridobil mednarodno pozornost. [16] Toda okrožje je bilo napadnjeno šele leta 1814. [17] Ameriška vojska in majhna ameriška mornarica ne bi mogli narediti ničesar za obrambo Mainea. Nacionalna uprava je regiji dodelila nominalna sredstva, svoja prizadevanja je osredotočila na zahod. Lokalna milica se je na splošno izkazala za neprimerno za izziv. [18] Vendar so v zadnjih mesecih vojne velike mobilizacije milic preprečile sovražnikovo posredovanje v Wiscassetu, Bathu in Portlandu. [19] Britanska vojska in pomorske sile iz bližnje Nove Škotske so zavzele in zasedle vzhodno obalo od Eastporta do Castine ter oropale reki Penobscot v mestih Hampden in Bangor (glej bitko pri Hampdnu). Zakonita trgovina po vsej obali Maine je bila v veliki meri ustavljena - kritična situacija za kraj, ki je tako odvisen od ladijskega prometa. Namesto tega se je razvila nedovoljena tihotapska trgovina z Britanci, zlasti v Castineu in Eastportu. [20] Britanci so Ameriki v Gentovski pogodbi dali »Novo Irsko«, Castine pa so evakuirali, čeprav je Eastport ostal pod okupacijo do leta 1818. Toda ranljivost Mainea pred tujo invazijo in pomanjkanje zaščite Massachusettsa sta bila pomembna dejavnika pri povojni zagon državnosti. [21]

Splošno sodišče v Massachusettsu je 19. junija 1819 sprejelo veljavno zakonodajo, ki ločuje okrožje Maine od preostalega Commonwealtha Massachusetts. [22] Naslednji mesec, 26. julija, so volivci v okrožju odobrili državnost s 17.091 na 7.132.

Okrožje Za državnost [23] Za status quo [23]
Glasovi PCT Glasovi PCT
Cumberland 3,315 70.4% 1,394 29.6%
Hancock 820 51.9% 761 48.1%
Kennebec 3,950 86.0% 641 14.0%
Lincoln 2,523 62.2% 1,534 37.8%
Oxford 1,893 77.5% 550 22.5%
Penobscot 584 71.7% 231 28.3%
Somerset 1,440 85.9% 237 14.1%
Washington 480 77.7% 138 22.3%
York 2,086 55.9% 1,646 44.2%
Skupaj: 17,091 70.6% 7,132 29.4%

Rezultati volitev so bili predstavljeni svetu guvernerja Massachusettsa 24. avgusta 1819. [23] 210 delegatov ustavne konvencije Maine oktobra 1819 je soglasno sprejelo ustavo Maine. 25. februarja 1820 je Splošno sodišče sprejelo nadaljnji ukrep, ki je uradno sprejel dejstvo bližnje državnosti Mainea. [22]

V času Maineove zahteve po državnosti je bilo enako število svobodnih in suženjskih držav. Člani kongresa Združenih držav, ki podpirajo suženjstvo, so sprejem druge svobodne države Maine videli kot grožnjo ravnovesju med suženjskimi in svobodnimi državami. Državnost za Maine bi podprli le, če bi ozemlje Missourija, kjer je bilo suženjstvo zakonito, v Unijo sprejeto kot suženjska država. Maine je 15. marca 1820 po kompromisu v Missouriju, ki je Missouriju omogočil vstop v Unijo kot država, ki je lastnica sužnjev, Maine pa kot svobodna država, postala 23. država. Vendar pa se je Massachusetts še vedno držal prostranih otokov Maine na morju, potem ko mu je dovolil odcepitev, zaradi velikega števila ljudi na njih, ki so še vedno želeli ostati del Massachusettsa. To je trajalo le do leta 1824, ko so stroški oskrbe otokov, ki so bili zdaj zelo težko dostopni neposredno iz Massachusettsa, odtehtali vsak dobiček, ki bi ga dosegli z zadrževanjem teh otokov. Massachusetts je uradno odstopil zadnji od svojih otokov v bližini Maine konec leta 1824. [24]

William King je bil izvoljen za prvega guvernerja države. William D. Williamson je postal prvi predsednik senata zvezne države Maine. Ko je King leta 1821 odstopil z mesta guvernerja, ga je Williamson samodejno nasledil, da je postal drugi guverner Mainea. Istega leta pa je kandidiral in dobil sedež v 17. kongresu Združenih držav. Po Williamsonovem odstopu je predsednik predstavniškega doma Maine Benjamin Ames postal tretji guverner Mainea za približno mesec dni, dokler ni nastopil Daniel Rose. Rose je služboval le od 2. januarja do 5. januarja 1822, s čimer je zapolnil neiztečeni mandat med upravama Amesa in Albiona K. Parrisa. Parris je bil guverner do 3. januarja 1827.

Še vedno trajajoči mejni spor z britansko Severno Ameriko se je razvil leta 1839, ko je guverner Maine John Fairfield napovedal virtualno vojno lesarjem iz New Brunswicka, ki sekajo les na deželah, ki jih zahteva Maine. V Bangorju so zbrali štiri polke milice Maine in se odpravili do meje, vendar do boja ni prišlo. Vojna Aroostook je bila neprijavljen in brezkrven konflikt, ki ga je rešila diplomacija. [25]

Državni sekretar Daniel Webster je na skrivaj financiral propagandno kampanjo, ki je voditelje Maine prepričala, da je kompromis pameten, Webster je uporabil stari zemljevid, ki je pokazal, da so britanske trditve legitimne. Britanci so imeli drugačen stari zemljevid, ki je pokazal, da so ameriške trditve legitimne, zato sta obe strani menili, da ima druga boljši primer. Končna meja med državama je bila vzpostavljena s pogodbo Webster – Ashburton iz leta 1842, ki je Maineu dala večino spornega območja, Britancem pa je dala vojaško pomembno povezavo med svojimi provincami Kanado (današnji Quebec in Ontario) in New. Brunswick. [26]

Strast vojne v Aroostooku je pomenila vse večjo vlogo, ki jo imajo les in sečnja v gospodarstvu Maine, zlasti v osrednjem in vzhodnem delu države. Bangor je v 1830-ih letih nastal kot grozljiv razcvet in potencialni demografski in politični tekmec Portlandu. Bangor je za nekaj časa postal največje lesno pristanišče na svetu in mesto besnih ugibanj o zemlji, ki so segala do doline reke Penobscot in naprej. [27]

Industrializacija v Maineu v 19. stoletju je imela različne oblike, odvisno od regije in obdobja. Rečne doline, zlasti Androscroggin, Kennebec in Penobscot, so od leta 1820 do 30 postale virtualni transportni trakovi za izdelavo lesa. Ekipe za sečnjo so prodrle globoko v gozdove Maine v iskanju bora (in kasneje smreke) in ga odplavile do žag, zbranih pri slapovih. Les so nato pošiljali iz pristanišč, kot so Bangor, Ellsworth in Cherryfield po vsem svetu.

Delno zaradi potrebe lesne industrije po prevozu in delno zaradi razširjenosti lesa in tesarjev vzdolž zelo dolge obale je ladjedelništvo postalo pomembna industrija v obalnih mestih Maine. Trgovsko morje Maine je bilo sorazmerno s številom prebivalcev države, ladje in posadke iz skupnosti, kot so Bath, Brewer in Belfast, pa je bilo mogoče najti po vsem svetu. Gradnja zelo velikih lesenih jadrnic se je ponekod nadaljevala v začetku 20. stoletja.

Tovarne bombažnega tekstila so se preselile v Maine iz Massachusettsa v začetku leta 1820. Glavno mesto za proizvodnjo bombažnega tekstila je bil Lewiston na reki Androscoggin, najbolj severno od mest sistema Waltham-Lowell (tovarniška mesta po vzoru Lowell, Massachusetts). Pobrateni mesti Biddeford in Saco ter Augusta, Waterville in Brunswick so prav tako postali pomembni skupnosti za proizvodnjo tekstila. Ti mlini so bili ustanovljeni na slapovih in sredi kmečkih skupnosti, saj so se sprva opirali na delo kmečkih deklet, ki so sklenjene s kratkoročnimi pogodbami. V letih po državljanski vojni bi postali magneti za priseljensko delo.

Poleg ribištva so pomembne panoge 19. stoletja vključevale kamnolom granita in skrilavca, opekarstvo in čevljarstvo.

Od začetka 20. stoletja se je industrija celuloze in papirja iz lesarjev razširila v gozdove Maine in večino rečnih dolin, tako da je Ralph Nader v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja slavno opisal Maine kot "nasad papirja". Na mnogih velikih rekah so nastala povsem nova mesta, kot sta Millinocket in Rumford.

Kljub vsemu temu industrijskemu razvoju je Maine do 20. stoletja ostal pretežno kmetijska država, večina prebivalstva pa je živela v majhnih in široko ločenih vaseh. S kratkimi rastnimi sezonami, skalnatimi tlemi in relativno oddaljenostjo od trgov kmetijstvo Maine nikoli ni bilo tako uspešno kot v drugih državah, ko je populacija večine kmečkih skupnosti dosegla vrhunec v 1850 -ih, nato pa se je postopoma zmanjševala.

Uredi železnice

Železnice so oblikovale Maineovo geografijo, tako kot v večini ameriških držav. Prva železnica v Maineu je bila železnica Calais, ki jo je državni zakonodajalec vključil 17. februarja 1832. [28] Zgrajena je bila za prevoz lesa iz mlina na reki Saint Croix nasproti Milltowna v New Brunswicku dve milji do plimske vode pri Calaisu. leta 1835. Leta 1849 se je ime spremenilo v železnico Calais in Baring in proga se je podaljšala še štiri milje do Baringa. [29] Leta 1870 je postal del železnice St. Croix in Penobscot. [30]

Druga državna železnica je bila Bangor & amp Piscataquis Railroad & amp Canal Company, ki jo je zakonodajalec ustanovil 18. februarja 1833. [31] Tekla je enajst milj od Bangorja do Oldtowna vzdolž zahodnega brega reke Penobscot in se odprla novembra 1836. 1854-55, se je podaljšalo 1,5 milje čez reko Penobscot do Milforda, ime pa se je spremenilo v Bangor, Oldtown & amp Milford Railroad Company. Leta 1869 so ga absorbirali v evropsko in severnoameriško železnico. [ potreben citat ]

Tretja železnica v Maineu je bila železnica Portland, Saco in Portsmouth, ki jo je zakonodajalec vključil 14. marca 1837. [32] To je bil ključni korak pri razvoju železnic v Maineu, ker je nova železnica povezovala Portland z Bostonom s povezavo z vzhodno železnico pri Kitteryju preko mostu v Portsmouth. Ta železnica je bila odprta 21. novembra 1842 in je bila dolga 51,34 milje. [ potreben citat ]

Zlasti Portland je uspeval kot zaključek železniške proge Grand Trunk iz Montreala, ki je v bistvu postal kanadsko zimsko pristanišče zaradi prizadevanj vlagateljev, kot sta John A. Poor in John Neal. [33] Portland Company je zgradila zgodnje železniške lokomotive, Portland Terminal Company pa je upravljala skupne operacije preklapljanja za Maine Central Railroad in Boston in Maine Railroad. Železniška proga se je v petdesetih letih 20. stoletja pripeljala do Bangorja in vse do okrožja Aroostook v začetku 20. stoletja. [ potreben citat ]

Še preden je plima poselitve narasla v večini Mainea, so nekateri začeli odhajati na Zahod. Prvi obsežen odsek je bil verjetno v letih 1816-17, ki so ga spodbudili vojni leta 1812, nenavadno hladno poletje in širitev naselja zahodno od Apalaških gora v Ohiu. "Ohio Fever", kot se je sprva imenovala zahodna vaba, je izselil številne novonastale mainske skupnosti in zaviral rast drugih, čeprav je bil skupni zagon poravnave v veliki meri obnovljen do leta 1820, ko je Maine dosegel državnost. [34]

Ker se je ameriška meja še naprej širila proti zahodu, so Mainerjeve še posebej pritegnile gozdne države Michigan, Wisconsin in Minnesota, veliko število pa je tja prineslo svoje lesarske sposobnosti in znanje. Migranti iz Mainea so bili še posebej vidni v Minnesoti, na primer trije župani Minneapolisa iz 19. stoletja so bili Mainers. [35]

Kalifornijska zlata mrzlica leta 1849 in pozneje je bila velik zagon za lesna in obalna ladjedelniška gospodarstva, saj je bilo treba gradbeni les "odpremiti okoli Horna" iz Mainea do vzpostavitve žagarstva na Zahodni obali. Maine ladje so prevažale tudi migrante, ki iščejo zlato, zato so bili številni Mainers (in vidiki maine kulture, na primer lesarstvo in tesarstvo) presajeni v Kalifornijo in pacifiški severozahod. Trije župani San Francisca iz 19. stoletja, [36] dva guvernerja Kalifornije, [37] guverner Oregona [38] in dva guvernerja Washingtona [39] so se rodili v Maineu.

Maine je bila prva država na severovzhodu, ki je podprla novo proti suženjstvu Republikanske stranke, deloma zaradi vpliva evangeličanskega protestantizma, deloma pa zaradi dejstva, da je bil Maine obmejna država, zato je bila dovzetna za strankino platformo za "svobodno zemljo". Abraham Lincoln je za svojega prvega podpredsednika izbral Mainejevega Hannibala Hamlina.

Maine je bil tako navdušen nad ohranitvijo Unije v ameriški državljanski vojni, da je prispeval večje število borcev, sorazmerno s svojim prebivalstvom, kot katera koli druga država Unije. [40] Po številu svojih mornarjev, ki so služili v mornarici Združenih držav Amerike, je bil šele Massachusetts. Joshua Chamberlain in Holman Melcher sta skupaj z 20. prostovoljnim pehotnim polkom Maine igrala ključno vlogo v bitki pri Gettysburgu, 1. polk težke artilerije Maine pa je z enim polnjenjem (ob obleganju Peterburga) izgubil več ljudi kot kateri koli polk Unije v vojno.

Ena od dediščin vojne je bila prevlada republikanske stranke v državni politiki v naslednjih pol stoletja in pozneje. Državne volitve so bile septembra in so znancem dneva predstavile strokovne delavce ključni pokazatelj razpoloženja volivcev po celem severu-"kakor gre Maine, tako gre narod".

V 50-letnem obdobju 1861 do 1911 (ko so demokrati začasno preplavili večino državnih uradov) so bili republiki Maine podpredsednik, državni sekretar, sekretar za finance (dvakrat), predsednik pro tempore senata, predsednika parlamenta (dvakrat) in republikanskega kandidata za predsednika. Ta sinhronizacija med politiko Mainea in naroda se je dramatično porušila leta 1936, ko je Maine postal ena od le dveh držav [41], ki sta glasovali za republikanskega kandidata, Alfa Landona, na ponovni volitvi Franklina D. Roosevelta. Maine republikanci ostajajo sila v državni politiki, toda od vzpona poljsko-ameriškega katoliškega demokrata Edmunda Muskieja na guvernerstvo v petdesetih letih je bil Maine uravnotežena dvostranska država. Med nacionalno najbolj vplivnimi republikanci Maine v zadnjih desetletjih sta nekdanja senatorja William Cohen in Olympia Snowe ter senatorka Susan Collins. [42]

Irski Edit

Maine je sredi 19. stoletja doživel val irskega priseljevanja, čeprav so mnogi v državo prišli prek Kanade in Massachusettsa ter pred veliko lakoto. V Bangorju je že med letom 1834 prišlo do nemirov med irskimi in jankijskimi (nativističnimi) mornarji in lesarji, številne zgodnjekatoliške cerkve so bile požgane ali vandalizirane v obalnih skupnostih, kjer je na kratko zaživela Stranka, ki nič ne ve. Po državljanski vojni je irsko-katoliško prebivalstvo Maine začelo proces integracije in mobilnosti navzgor. [43]

Francoski Kanadčani Edit

Konec 19. stoletja je veliko francoskih Kanadčanov prispelo iz Quebeca in New Brunswicka, da bi delali v mestih za tekstilno mlin, kot sta Lewiston in Biddeford. Do sredine 20. stoletja so Franko-Američani sestavljali 30% prebivalstva države. Nekateri migranti so postali drvarji, vendar so bili najbolj koncentrirani na industrijsko razvitih območjih in v enklavah, znanih kot "male kanade". [44]

Priseljenke iz Québécoisa so videle Združene države kot priložnost in možnost, kjer bi lahko ustvarile alternative zase, ki se razlikujejo od pričakovanj njihovih staršev in njihove skupnosti. V začetku 20. stoletja so nekatere francoske Kanadčanke celo začele videti migracijo v Združene države kot obred prehoda in čas samoodkrivanja in samozavesti. Ko so se te ženske poročile, so imele manj otrok z daljšimi presledki med otroki kot njihovi kanadski kolegi. Nekatere ženske se nikoli niso poročile, ustna poročila pa kažejo, da sta bila samozavest in ekonomska neodvisnost pomembna razloga za izbiro dela pred poroko in materinstvom. Te ženske so se prilagodile tradicionalnim idealom spola pred migracijo, da bi ohranile svojo "kanadsko" kulturno identiteto, vendar so te vloge redefinirale tudi na način, ki jim je omogočil večjo neodvisnost v vlogi žena in mater. [45]

Franko-Američani so postali aktivni v Katoliški cerkvi, kjer so z malo uspeha poskušali izpodbijati njeno prevlado irskih duhovnikov. [46] Ustanovili so časopise, kot sta Le Messager in La Justice. Lewistonova prva bolnišnica je postala resničnost leta 1889, ko so sestre dobrodelne sestre iz Montreala, 'sive nune', odprle vrata azila Lurške Matere Božje. Ta bolnišnica je bila osrednjega pomena za poslanstvo Grey Nuns pri zagotavljanju socialnih storitev za Lewistonove pretežno francosko -kanadske mlinske delavce. Sive redovnice so se kljub skromnim finančnim sredstvom, jezikovnim oviram in nasprotovanju uveljavljene medicinske skupnosti trudile vzpostaviti svojo ustanovo. [47] Priseljenci so se po prvi svetovni vojni zmanjšali.

Francosko-kanadska skupnost v Novi Angliji je poskušala ohraniti nekatere svoje kulturne norme. Ta doktrina je, tako kot prizadevanja za ohranitev frankofonske kulture v Quebecu, postala znana kot la Survivance. Glej tudi: Quebeška diaspora. [48] ​​Z upadom državne tekstilne industrije v petdesetih letih je francoski element doživel obdobje naraščajoče mobilnosti in asimilacije. Ta vzorec asimilacije se je v sedemdesetih in osemdesetih letih povečeval, ko so številne katoliške organizacije prešle na angleška imena, župniški otroci pa so vstopili v javne šole, nekatere župnijske šole, zaprte v sedemdesetih letih. Čeprav nekatere vezi z njenim francosko-kanadskim poreklom ostajajo, je bila skupnost v devetdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja v veliki meri omamljena in se je skoraj popolnoma preusmerila iz "kanadskega" v "ameriškega". [49]

Predstavnik asimilacijskega procesa je bila kariera pevca in ikone ameriške popularne kulture Rudyja Valléea (1901–86). Odraščal je v Westbrooku v Maineu, po službi v prvi svetovni vojni pa je obiskoval Univerzo v Maineu, nato se je preselil na Yale in postal priljubljena glasbena zvezda. He never forgot his Maine roots, and maintained an estate at Kezar Lake. [50]

Other immigrants Edit

English and Scottish Edit

A large number of immigrants of English and Scottish-Canadian stock relocated from the Maritime Provinces.

Scandinavians Edit

The first Europeans on North American soil were vikings from Norway led by Leif Eriksson. These Norwegians traded with the native Penobscot. In 1797, the town of Norway, Maine was incorporated and attracted a small group of Norwegians.

A Swedish colony. in Maine was started in Aristook by William W. Thomas Jr. to recruit Swedish Loggers. This came to be known as the town of New Sweden. [51] Other towns with big Swedish populations were Stockholm and Westmanland.

The towns of Denmark and South Portland attracted Danish immigrants to Maine, also as loggers and dockworkers.

Somalis Edit

In the 2000s, Somalis began a secondary migration to Maine from other states on account of the area's low crime rate, good schools and cheap housing. [52] [53]

Mainly concentrated in Lewiston, Somalis have opened up community centers to cater to their community. In 2001, the non-profit organization United Somali Women of Maine (USWM) was founded in Lewiston, seeking to promote the empowerment of Somali women and girls across the state. [54]

In August 2010, the Lewiston Sun Journal reported that Somali entrepreneurs had helped reinvigorate downtown Lewiston by opening dozens of shops in previously closed storefronts. Amicable relations were also reported by the local merchants of French-Canadian descent and the Somali storekeepers. [55]

Bantus Edit

Due to the civil war in Somalia, the United States government classified the Somali Bantu (an ethnic minority group in the country) as a priority, and began preparations to resettle an estimated 12,000 Bantu refugees in select cities throughout the U.S. [56] Most of the early arrivals in the United States settled in Clarkston, Georgia, a city adjacent to Atlanta. However, they were mostly assigned to low rent, poverty-stricken inner city areas, so many began to look to resettle elsewhere in the US. [52] After 2005, many Bantus were resettled in Maine by aid agencies. [52] Catholic Charities Maine is the refugee resettlement agency that provides the bulk of the services for the Bantus' resettlement. [57]

The state's Bantu community is served by the Somali Bantu Community Mutual Assistance Association of Lewiston/Auburn Maine (SBCMALA), which focuses on housing, employment, literacy and education, health and safety matters. [56]

Largely because of Irish and French-Canadian immigration, 40% of Maine's population was Catholic by 1900 the Catholic Church ran its own school system in the cities, where almost all Catholics lived. This demographic and its resulting social and political ramifications led to a backlash in the 1920s, as the Ku Klux Klan formed cells in a number of Maine towns. [58]

The immigrant population was largely responsible for the steady growth of the Democratic Party, however, which gave Maine a true two-party system in the years after World War II. The election in 1954 of Governor Edmund Muskie, a Catholic Polish American tailor's son from the mill-town of Rumford, was a major watershed. The governor from 2003 to 2011, John Baldacci, is of Italian American and Arab American ancestry from Bangor.

Summer residents Edit

Maine is a natural beauty, cool summers and proximity to the large East Coast cities made it a major tourist destination as early as the 1850s. The visitors enjoyed the local handicrafts the most successful was carving out a mythical image of Maine as a bucolic rustic haven from modern urban woes. The mythical image, elaborately polished for 150 years, attracts tourist dollars to an economically depressed state. [59] Summer resorts such as Bar Harbor, Sorrento, and Islesboro sprung up along the coast, and soon urbanites were building houses—ranging from mansions to shacks, but all called "cottages"—in what had formerly been shipbuilding and fishing villages. Maine's seasonal residents transformed the economy of the seacoast and to some extent its culture, especially when some began staying all year round. [60]

The Bush family and their compound in Kennebunkport are a notable example of this demographic. The Rockefeller family were conspicuous members of the summer community at Bar Harbor. Summer residents who were painters and writers began to define the state's image through their work.

By the middle of the twentieth century, the textile industry was establishing itself more profitably in the American South, and some Maine cities began to de-industrialize as wages rose above those of the South. [61] In 1937, the Lewiston-Auburn Shoe Strike involved 4,000 to 5,000 textile workers on strike in Lewiston and Auburn. It was one of the largest labor disputes state history. [62] Shipbuilding also ceased in all but a few places, notably Bath and its successful Bath Iron Works, which became a notable producer of naval vessels during the Second World War and after. In recent years, however, even Maine's most traditional industries have been threatened forest conservation efforts have diminished logging and restrictions on fisheries have likewise exerted considerable pressure along the coast. The last "heavy industry" in Maine, pulp and paper began to withdraw in the late 20th century, leaving the future of the Maine Woods an open question.

In response, the state attempted to buttress retailing and service industries, especially those linked to tourism. The label Vacationland was added to license plates in the 1960s. More recent tax incentives have encouraged outlet shopping centers such as the cluster at Freeport. Increasing numbers of visitors began to enjoy Maine's vast tracts of relatively unspoiled wilderness, mountains, and expansive coastline. State and national parks in Maine also became loci of middle-class tourism, especially Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island.

The growth of Portland and areas of southern Maine and the retraction of job opportunities (and population) in the northern and eastern areas of the state led in the 1990s to discussion of "two Maines", with potentially different interests. Portland and certain coastal towns aside, Maine remains the poorest state in the Northeast. By some accounts, adjusting for its high taxes and living costs, Maine has been since at least the 1970s the poorest state in the United States. [63] The notion that Maine is indeed the poorest state in the US is supported by its exceptionally high levels of welfare dependence [64] over the past half century. [65]


History of Castine - History

Castine
Originally published in Castine Patriot, June 17, 2021
Small to read from Wheeler’s unpublished work


Join Castine resident and author Don Small for an exclusive reading of the unpublished works of George Augustus Wheeler, the author of History of Castine: The Battle Line of Four Nations and the great-great-grandfather of Don’s wife Shelley Bartlett Small.

The event will be via Zoom and at the Hutchins Education Center on the Wilson Museum campus on Wednesday, June 23, at 2 p.m., according to a press release.

Through a selection of stories read by Small, get a glimpse into Wheeler’s life as a medical doctor and resident of Castine in the period 1870 to 1923. Attendees will have fun imagining a Castine of days gone by as they hear about Wheeler’s move from Old Town with his family, his view of the town, descriptions of several citizens—some of whom will be familiar names to those acquainted with the history of Castine, and several stories of unusual happenings.

The unpublished hand-written papers were from the Bartlett House on Perkins Street, the home of Louise Wheeler Bartlett (daughter of Dr. Wheeler and great-grandmother to Shelley).

Copies of the 1923 History of Castine: The Battle Line of Four Nations can be found in the Museum Store online and in person.


Castine was platted in 1832 and replatted in the following year. Its location was chosen because it lay at the intersection of the road between Greenville and Eaton with the road between the communities of Miami County, Ohio and New Garden, Indiana. [7] For its first few decades, the village (then known as "New Castine") grew and prospered, but the building of the Little Miami Railroad through West Manchester, 2 miles (3.2 km) to the south, retarded Castine's progress. Revival came with the construction of the Cincinnati Northern Railroad in 1894. [7] : 584

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.08 square miles (0.21 km 2 ), all land. [9]

Zgodovinsko prebivalstvo
Census Pop.
1870177
1880127 −28.2%
1910142
1920146 2.8%
193091 −37.7%
1940124 36.3%
1950146 17.7%
1960169 15.8%
1970150 −11.2%
1980147 −2.0%
1990163 10.9%
2000129 −20.9%
2010130 0.8%
2019 (est.)135 [4] 3.8%
U.S. Decennial Census [10]

Popis prebivalstva 2010 Uredi

As of the census [3] of 2010, there were 130 people, 54 households, and 36 families living in the village. The population density was 1,625.0 inhabitants per square mile (627.4/km 2 ). There were 59 housing units at an average density of 737.5 per square mile (284.8/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the village was 97.7% White, 0.8% Native American, 0.8% from other races, and 0.8% from two or more races.

There were 54 households, of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 33.3% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 18.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.97.

The median age in the village was 35.5 years. 23.8% of residents were under the age of 18 5.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24 31.6% were from 25 to 44 23.1% were from 45 to 64 and 16.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the village was 49.2% male and 50.8% female.

Popis 2000 Uredi

As of the census [5] of 2000, there were 129 people, 43 households, and 39 families living in the village. The population density was 1,700.1 people per square mile (622.6/km 2 ). There were 46 housing units at an average density of 606.2 per square mile (222.0/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the village was 98.45% White, 0.78% African American, and 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.55% of the population.

There were 43 households, out of which 55.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 79.1% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 7.0% were non-families. 7.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 4.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.08.

In the village, the population was spread out, with 33.3% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 36.4% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 118.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.8 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $41,250, and the median income for a family was $42,813. Males had a median income of $35,313 versus $24,792 for females. The per capita income for the village was $11,950. There were 7.7% of families and 7.0% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64.


History of Castine - History

In the winter of 1613 (that is, prej the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth MA), Sieur Claude de Turgis de la Tour founded a small trading post here among the Tarrantine Indians.

The struggle for North America's forest, natural, and maritime wealth was already beginning, and the French Fort Pentagoët founded by Turgis de la Tour would be conquered by the English in 1628.

Treaty returned Pentagoët to France in 1635, and during the tumultuous period until 1676, the place changed hands many times. The British took it and called it Penobscot Fort the French retook it and built the formidable Fort St-Pierre.

At one time the village was the capital of all French Acadia (the lands in what is now Atlantic Canada).

Tudi Dutch coveted the fort, and ruled here from 1674 to 1676.

In the latter year Baron de Saint-Castin recaptured the town for France, and opened a trading station. Fortifications were strengthened, and despite raids by the British, the family of Baron de Saint-Castin ruled over the town (now called Bagaduce) even after the wealthy baron himself returned to France, in 1703.

By 1760, however, the fate of French North America was sealed, and Castin's Fort, or Bagaduce, was to be held by the British after that year.

English settlers brought new life to Bagaduce during the 1760s, and dissatisfaction boiled in the English colonies at this period. Some of the townspeople were loyal to the king, others sympathized—actively or passively—with the American revolutionaries.

In 1779 a British naval force came from Nova Scotia, intent on making the town safe for British Loyalists (and thereby influencing the negotiations that would determine the fledgling United States' northern border). The British built Fort George to defend the town.

The challenge to American sovereignty was taken up by the General Court (legislature) of Massachusetts, which governed the territory at the time, and the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition was outfitted and launched at an ultimate cost of $8 million.

Bad luck and bad commanding resulted in the destruction of most of the American force, almost bankrupting the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Fort George was enlarged and strengthened over the years, and the town thrived until the border between the US and Canada was determined.

Unhappily for residents of Bagaduce, the boundary was to be the St Stephen River (the present boundary), and not the Penobscot. Those loyal to the British Crown put their houses on boats and sailed them to sites along the coast of what is today New Brunswick at St. Andrews.

Some of the houses thus moved still stand in St Andrews, and residents point to them proudly.

In 1796 the name of Bagaduce was changed to Castine, and although it was occupied by British forces during the Vojna 1812, it never again saw much military action.


History of Castine - History

Castine
Originally published in Castine Patriot, July 31, 2014
Far below the earth’s crust
The history of Maine granite runs deep


Crotch Island, off Stonington, was the site of quarry mining in the 1800s. Active mining continued into the 1960s, then declined for a brief period but is actively quarried today. This aerial view was taken in 2012.

The many rooms, walls and arches of Fort Knox, in Bucksport, were constructed of Maine granite in 1832. Why? Not just because the site was close to coastal quarries Maine granite was known across the U.S. and Europe for its strength, size and beauty, said Steve Haynes, Director of the Maine Granite Industry Historical Society on Mount Desert Island.

“It was a very important industry here because of the large granite plutons,” Haynes said.

Plutonic granite comes from crystallized magma cooled slowly deep below the earth surface. The further down from the earth’s crust and the slower it is cooled, the stronger the granite.

In the quarries developed along the coast of Maine, granite was found up to five miles deep. In Sullivan, the granite plutons are more than 420 million years old, Haynes said.

He explained the scope of Maine’s granite industry in a detailed talk at the Wilson Museum on July 16, describing each quarry founded on the Maine coastline: the kind and quantities of equipment used for mining, splitting and transporting the granite the varieties of granite found and the many buildings the granite was used to construct.

Granite was cut from below the earth’s crust in large sheets by quarrymen who came to Maine to share their expertise.

“Men from Scotland, Finland, Sweden…all came to America to perform the cutting of the sheet,” Haynes said. “These men believe they were building the pyramids of America.” Post offices, court houses, state houses and cathedrals are some of the buildings that were constructed from Maine granite in the 1800s.

Each quarry produced a different variety of granite, in color, grain and strength.

Granite from the North Jay, Maine, quarry was “the white granite of New England,” Haynes said, and used to build General Grant’s tomb, the Hahnemann Monument in Washington, D.C., and, closer to home, a cathedral in Lewiston.

Granite mined in Hallowell, prized for its softness that allowed easier carving, built the Gettysburg Monument.

Wharf Quarry on Vinalhaven produced a pinkish quarry in huge sheets cut for columns from 50 to 72 feet long for the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. “There’s no other quarry in the U.S. that would offer 72-foot pieces,” Haynes said. A coarse, strong granite formed from larger crystals deep in the earth and cooled slowly, “the stone cutters love this granite because it carves so nicely.”

Off Stonington, the quarry on Crotch Island produced a lavender-tinged granite that polished well. The quarry opened in 1872, with quarrymen loading the granite sheets onto the decks of schooners for transport. “These men were very brave,” jumping from rock to rock on deck, Haynes said. Crotch Island granite was used in so many buildings, “I could go on for days with the contracts out of Stonington,” Haynes said.

Granite from Somes Sound on Mount Desert Island, mined for the Standard Granite Company, was considered the “best monument granite in the U.S.,” Haynes said. The same granite rock is found in Cadillac Mountain, formed by granite pushed deep beneath the earth by volcanic force.

The Maine granite industry peaked around 1900, but in 1920, a new market opened, supplying street “pavers,” blocks of granite exported to New York, New Orleans and Philadelphia to pave their streets. Each city required a slightly different size paving stone depending on the size of their horses, mules, oxen and carts.

At its strongest, one square inch of granite can resist a crushing strength of 32,635 pounds. In comparison, iron’s crushing strength is 3,000 pounds per square inch.

The quarrymen used skill and specialized tools to split the granite without shattering it, whether for a one-foot paver or a 50-foot column. In Hallowell, for example, the list of quarry equipment ranged from 18 derricks and two traveling cranes to 14 pneumatic plug drills and pneumatic hand drills.

“These men were experts,” Haynes said.

Today, the stone dust unearthed by granite quarrying in the 19th century fertilizes plant life around the quarry sites, but the buildings live on around the world.


Castine Historic District

The Castine Historic District encompasses the entire southern tip of the peninsula on which the town of Castine, Maine is located. Covering about 1,800 acres (730 ha), this area was a center of colonial conflicts dating to the early 17th century, and was the site of military action during the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Bypassed by the railroads, it has retained a village feel reminiscent of the early 19th century. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. [1]

Castine is located at the mouth of the Bagaduce River, where it empties into Penobscot Bay, in the center of coastal Maine. This area, first known as "Pentagoet" and "Majabigwaduce", was the site of a French trading post established in the early 17th century. Its presence was disputed by English colonists, and it was seized by the Plymouth Colony around 1630. It changed hands a number of times in the 17th century, falling firmly under French control by the 1670s under the leadership of Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, for whom the town is named. After the English capture of Castin's son in 1725, the French abandoned the settlement, and it was resettled by British colonists from the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1760. [2]

In the American Revolutionary War Castine became the scene of further conflict. The peninsula was seized and fortified by British forces in 1779, and Massachusetts raised a military force in response to dispute the occupation. This led to the disastrous Penobscot Expedition, which resulted in the destruction of the entire Massachusetts fleet, including the scuttling of ships in the Castine area. British forces again occupied Castine in 1814, during the War of 1812. [2]

After the War of 1812, Castine's maritime economy flourished, resulting in the construction of a number of fine Federal style buildings in the town. Due to its remote location with respect to land transportation, the town declined when railroads became a dominant form of transportation, and the sailing ship was replaced by steamers. Its economy was bolstered by the presence of a normal school, whose campus was taken over in 1942 by the Maine Maritime Academy. [2]

Architecturally, the community is dominated by Georgian, Federal, and Greek Revival buildings, built before 1860. There are a small number of later Victorian summer houses. The remnants of British and American fortifications are also a significant presence in the community, as is the 1829 Dice Head Light at the southwestern tip of the peninsula. [2]


The Castine Historical Society continues to follow the state of Maine’s Covid guidelines. While our offices remain closed to visitors, staff are onsite working Monday-Friday. Please continue to check our 2021 Season Updates page, follow us on Facebook, or sign up for our e-blast communications to get up-to-date information on the 2021 season. Hvala za razumevanje. In the meantime, learn more about Castine by taking our Castine History Virtual Tour.

The Penobscot Expedition, a little-known event in Revolutionary War history, took place from July 25 to August 15, 1779. That year the British were attracted to the Penobscot peninsula (Castine) for several reasons: as a possible Loyalist haven, as a source of timber for the King’s Navy, and as a strategic naval base and coastal trading post. Early in June they sent a small flotilla from Halifax, Nova Scotia, with approximately 750 troops to occupy the area and to build a fort, later named Fort George. Capt. Henry Mowat was in command of the naval vessels and Brig. Gen. Frances McLean the land forces. They arrived at the peninsula in mid-June.

Since Maine was a province of Massachusetts at that time, the occupation of Penobscot, and its potential as a British naval base, was of great concern to the Massachusetts General Assembly in Boston. In record time, an American fleet of 19 armed vessels and 24 transports, with more than 1,000 ill-prepared militia was assembled and sent to Penobscot Bay to retake the area. Commodore Dudley Saltonstall was commander of the naval forces, Brig. Gen. Solomon Lovell had command of the land forces, with Lt. Col. Paul Revere in command of the ordnance train. The fleet reached the head of Penobscot Bay on July 25.

For two weeks there were a few brief, intense forays between the land forces but nothing decisive. Saltonstall, with his superior naval strength, was reluctant to take any action against Mowat’s three-ship defense, which gave the British sufficient time to send for and receive reinforcements from New York.

On August 13 seven heavily armed British warships, under the command of Sir George Collier, sailed into Penobscot Bay where they faced Saltonstall’s fleet. Anticipating a sea battle, Lovell abandoned all his positions and began a retreat up the Penobscot River. On the morning of August 14, to the astonishment of both the American Lovell and Englishman Collier, Saltonstall, who had the guns of his ships bearing broadside on the advancing British, turned his ships about and fled up the river where his entire fleet of warships and transports were sunk or scuttled and burned by their own forces. The panic-stricken crews and troops, with most of their leaders, rushed to shore and into the forest where they made their way back to Boston.

History of the Exhibit

In 2004, the Castine Historical Society opened a professionally researched, designed and built exhibit about the events of a few weeks in Penobscot Bay during the American Revolution. The project was meticulously developed by volunteers Frank Hatch, Jim Stone, and Laurie Stone working with other volunteers and several contractors. The result was a multi-media installation complete with a mahogany paneled room evoking Commodore Saltonstall’s day cabin on the Continental frigate Warren.

The ambitious installation was funded by Frank Hatch in honor of his father, Francis W. Hatch, and receives continuing support from a bequest by Frank Hatch. Thousands of visitors have watched the documentary video, reacted with surprise at hearing about the role of Paul Revere, and studied the many levels of research in the touch-screen kiosks.

In 2014, CHS began exploring options for updating the exhibit and installed the revised display in 2016. The new design features maps and charts to connect the story to the landscape and invites visitors to read facsimile copies of documents created during the time the events occurred. Highlighting the local context and national significance of the story, the exhibit was built to encourage everyone to participate in the historical process, even to those who are not Revolutionary War history buffs.


History of Castine - History

The town of Rochefort, halfway down the Atlantic coast toward Spain had been building ships for the French Navy for more than a century. In 1778 she had been ordered to build a series of four identical 32-gun Frigates of new design: La Fee’, La Corageuse, La Concorde, in Hermione. Along with another group of four frigates to be built with somewhat similar design, they were noted for exceptional speed and maneuverability. Classed as light frigates, armed mostly with 12-pound cannon, they often took on the roles of our modern destroyers.

In May of 1779, this first Hermione had been launched, commissioned and was heading to sea on its first campaign less than a year after its keel had been laid. Kapitan Hermione was Louis Rene’ de LaTouche-Treville, native of Rochefort, who would remain at her helm until a year after the end of the war and become well regarded in his position.

The 6-month 1779 campaign in the Bay of Biscay and nearby ended well with the capture of a number of prizes. 1780 began with repairs and several upgrades to the ship, including the new technique of covering the ship’s bottom with copper sheathing, resulting in a speed increase of about 20%, making the Hermione one of the very fastest French Naval ships.

The Hermione-Lafayette Voyage to America, March 1780

The copper bottom was well suited for the next voyage, which was to safely transport the Marquis de Lafayette to America. Lafayette had just achieved the King’s approval for substantial military aid to be given to General Washington’s army. Needing to return to Washington with that secret message as quickly as possible, by the safest method, the Hermione was chosen for the task- and was ready. Quickly fitted-out for the comfort of the Marquis and his small entourage, the Hermione sailed for the USA on March 20th, 1780.

Sailing directly across the Atlantic instead of south to the Trade Winds route to avoid that crowded way, the Hermione made landfall in Massachusetts 38 days later on April 28th, 1780. Lafayette debarked safely in Boston and was soon riding south to Washington’s headquarters to deliver his secret message of French aid.

Thus the contribution of the Hermione to a watershed event in our Revolutionary War: the safe delivery of both Lafayette and his extraordinary message of French aid- that would transform the fighting ability of the Continental Army, bolster its forces with French troops and ships, and soon lead directly to the end of the war at Yorktown in October, 1781. The Hermione remained in America, battling the British Navy blockade and taking part in the French Naval force at Yorktown- spending nearly two years here before sailing back to France.

From that time, that first Hermione has been known in France as the Hermione-Lafayette, the Ship of Liberty the Ship of the Enlightenment—with all the symbolism that brought to a lasting French pride in their contribution to the American experiment with independence—and liberty.

The New Hermione-Lafayette Project, 1997-2014

In 1997, the keel was laid in Rochefort for what has since become a precise replica of the original Hermione Frigate that carried Lafayette to our shores in 1780. The ship was finished in August 2014, and on sea trials off the French Atlantic coast. In the winter and spring of 2015, it prepared for its long-term objective: a voyage to America in 2015 to commemorate the voyage of the original Hermione that returned Lafayette to the USA, bringing his secret message of substantial French aid for Washington’s destitute army.

The story of how that keel came to be laid in 1997 began in the 1970s, when Rochefort decided to restore much of its former glory as a royal shipyard that dated from 1666. The goal was to attract tourists and historians to its somewhat remote coastal location. The old dry-docks, rope walk (the elegant corderie building) and gardens were restored. In 1993, a small group of aficionados proposed to replicate the Hermione, Lafayette’s ship of Liberty—and build it in the same Rochefort yards where the first Hermione was built in 1779. But there was an obstacle: the plans for the original Hermione had been lost. But France was now on good terms with England, and the complete plans of an identical sister ship, the Concorde, had been measured and drawn after she was captured by the English Navy in the 1790s. These plans were on file at the Admiralty, and easily obtained for the new Hermione projekt.

After 17 years in the building, in the autumn of 2014 the replica Hermione—the completed ship, rigged and armed with all its cannon, departed Rochefort for the Atlantic and its sea trials. Unlike its forbear, which took less than a year from keel to sea-going, the 17-year replica project had to progress no faster than mostly private funding would permit, with only a small number of volunteer shipwrights instead of the thousands that once swarmed the Rochefort yards and were paid from the King’s coffers. But the work was done with craft and respect, much of it employing a revival of 18th century talents and techniques, taking the time to be done very well.

The New Hermione-Lafayette: Coming to America, 2015

The pace of construction of the Hermione from 1997 was easily followed on the internet for many years. But it was not until the summer of 2012, when it was clear that the entire hull of the ship was finished and was being launched, that many far from Rochefort were suddenly made aware that the ship might soon sail on its original objective—the voyage to America, in commemoration of Lafayette’s famous crossing in 1780. Indeed, an initial route was published, with ten ports-of-call, from Yorktown to Boston, then at Halifax, Nova Scotia on the way home. At first 2014, then 2015 was posted to be the year of the voyage.

The ship was coming, and now it was America’s task to prepare for her. A new organization, The Friends of Hermione-Lafayette in America (FOH-LA ) was formed in New York, headed by Mr. Miles Young, CEO of Ogilvy&Mather, a world-wide advertising firm. It had the responsibility for both managing and gathering the funding and support for the entire voyage in American waters. Each of the selected ports-of-call were responsible for organizing their own welcome, and coordinating with the FOH-LA. With the publication of the route and the planned stops for the ship, a few people in Castine with knowledge of its history saw an opportunity, and the process of bringing her to Castine began.


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