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6 stvari, ki jih o mostu Golden Gate morda ne veste

6 stvari, ki jih o mostu Golden Gate morda ne veste

Vojska je želela, da bi bil most Golden Gate pobarvan s črtami.

Ameriško vojno ministrstvo je sprva nasprotovalo gradnji mostu Golden Gate, ker se je balo, da bi ladje mornarice lahko bile ujete v zalivu San Francisco, če bo razpon bombardiran ali porušen. Vojska je sčasoma odobrila, vendar je želela, da bi bil most prekrit s sijočimi črtami. Mornarica, zaskrbljena zaradi vidljivosti mimoidočih ladij v meglenih razmerah, je zahtevala, da se na mostu Golden Gate naslikajo črne in rumene črte. Vojaški letalski korpus se je zavzemal za bolj praznično, če ne manj razgibano kombinacijo rdečih in belih črt iz sladkarije, da bi bil most bolj opazen iz zraka.

Barva mosta Golden Gate ni bila trajna.

Jeklo, ki je v San Francisco prispelo za izgradnjo mostu Golden Gate, je bilo prevlečeno z opečeno rdečo in oranžno barvo temeljnega premaza za zaščito pred korozivnimi elementi. Arhitekt iz svetovanja Irving Morrow je ugotovil, da ima raje živahen odtenek temeljnega premaza kot bolj običajne barve, kot sta saj in jekleno siva. "Mednarodna oranžna" barva ni bila vidna le v megli, ampak je dopolnjevala naravno topografijo okoliških hribov in dobro kontrastirala s hladnim modrinom zaliva in neba. Morrow je na koncu izbral krepko barvo temeljnega premaza, ki naj bi bila začasna, za premaz mostu. (Formula po meri, ki jo je izdelal Sherwin-Williams, ni skrivnost. Najdete jo na spletnem mestu mostu.)

Prvotna zasnova mostu Golden Gate je bila splošno sprejeta.

Prvotna zasnova mostu, ki jo je leta 1921 izdelal glavni inženir Joseph Strauss, je bila okoren hibrid konzolnega in visečega mostu, ki je po mnenju enega kritika spominjal na "obrnjeno past za podgane". Bila je funkcionalna, a daleč od elegantne. Strauss se je strinjal, da bo odpravil zasnovo, kasneje pa je v projekt pripeljal konkurenčne inženirje, ki so izdelali bolj elegantno zasnovo visečega mostu.

Most Golden Gate je najbolj samomorilska lokacija na svetu.

Avgusta 1937, tri mesece po odprtju mostu Golden Gate, je H.B. Wobber se je sprehodil skupaj s turistom, ki ga je pravkar spoznal v avtobusu. Wobber se je nenadoma obrnil k svojemu spremljevalcu in rekel: »Tu sestopim. Skočil bom. " Kljub temu, da ga je turist poskušal ustaviti, se je Wobber vrgel čez bok. Štiri sekunde kasneje je s hitrostjo 75 milj na uro zadel površje zaliva San Francisco in s prvim skokom z mostu Golden Gate postal prvi od več kot 1500 ljudi, ki so naredili samomor. To je povprečno ena oseba manj kot vsake tri tedne. Več kot 30 skakalcev z mostu je dejansko preživelo svoje poskuse samouničenja. Na mostu je 11 telefonov za krizno svetovanje, ki se povezujejo z usposobljenimi svetovalci za preprečevanje samomorov, razmišljajo pa tudi o načrtih za izgradnjo mreže v okviru razpona kot odvračilnega ukrepa proti samomoru.

Most Golden Gate je imel impresiven varnostni rekord pri gradnji.

V tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je pravilo pri projektih gradnje mostov z visokim jeklom pričakovalo eno smrtno žrtev na vsakih 1 milijon dolarjev stroškov. Po teh standardih je bil rekord v gradbeni varnosti mostu Golden Gate vreden 35 milijonov dolarjev impresiven: umrlo je le 11 gradbenih delavcev. (Nasprotno pa je pri gradnji sosednjega mostu San Francisco-Oakland Bay, ki so ga odprli šest mesecev prej, umrlo 28 delavcev.) Joseph Strauss je postavil varnost na prvo mesto pri zahrbtnem projektu. Glavni inženir je gradbišče naredil kot prvo v Ameriki, ki je od delavcev zahtevalo, da nosijo zaščitne klobuke, 130.000 dolarjev pa je porabil za inovativno varnostno mrežo, ki je bila obešena pod mostno palubo. Mreža je rešila življenja 19 delavcem, ki so se imenovali »klub na pol poti v pekel«. Deset od 11 smrtnih žrtev se je zgodilo v eni sami nesreči 17. februarja 1937, ko se je 5-tonska delovna ploščad odcepila od mostu in padla skozi varnostno mrežo.

Lokalni prebivalci so lastništvo dali kot zavarovanje za financiranje gradnje mostu Golden Gate.

Za izgradnjo mostu je bilo porabljenega malo zveznega ali državnega denarja. Večina sredstev je prišla iz obveznic, ki so jih prodali Golden Gate Bridge in Highway District. Kljub veliki depresiji so volilci v šestih okrožjih leta 1930 odobrili izdajo obveznic v višini 35 milijonov dolarjev, zaradi katere so morali kot zavarovanje dati svoje domove, kmetije in podjetja. Odlična odobritev z razliko tri proti ena je odražala vero lokalnih državljanov v dolgoročno gospodarsko korist projekta. Gradbene obveznice so bile upokojene leta 1971.


12 zanimivih dejstev o mostu Golden Gate Bridge, ki vas lahko presenetijo

Most Golden Gate je bil odprt za javnost leta 1937 in se hitro uveljavil kot eden najbolj prepoznavnih mostov na svetu.

Na GoCar turah imamo zelo radi San Francisco in radi delimo svoje mesto z obiskovalci z vsega sveta. Tako smo zbrali dvanajst naših najljubših zanimivosti o mostu Golden Gate.

Od svojega imena do smrtonosne zgodovine, barve do rekordov, ki jih je podrl, in vsega vmes je ta fascinantni korak nazaj v čas bistveno branje, preden se sami prepričate.

Pripravite se na potovanje na to znamenito mesto v San Franciscu z dvanajstimi zanimivimi dejstvi Golden Gate Bridge, ki bi vas lahko presenetila!


Razgledne točke mostu Golden Gate Bridge

To sta dve mesti, ki jih obiskovalci mostu Golden Gate najraje obiščejo:

Razgledna točka na jugu (stran San Francisca): Parkirna mesta so skoraj vedno polna, prostori se merijo in če pustite, da števec poteče, boste plačali globo, ki bi lahko stala toliko kot obrok v zelo lepi restavraciji. Našli boste sanitarije, trgovino s spominki, kavarno in razstavo, ki prikazuje prerez mostnega kabla.

Če se vam zdi to parkirišče polno ali če želite porabiti več časa, kot dovoljujejo števci, poskusite te možnosti:

  • Odpeljite se od merjenega parcele in zavijte levo na Lincoln. Na vaši levi boste na kratki razdalji našli gramoz. Če se približujete iz Presidia na Lincolnu, je parcela tik nasproti dvonadstropnih hiš, ki so bile nekoč bivališča častnika Presidio.
  • SAMO Ob vikendih in praznikih boste na bližnjem satelitskem parkirišču na jugozahodni strani mostu našli plačljivejše parkirišče. Od tam pojdite proti mostu in skozi podhod, da pridete do razgledne točke.

Severna (marinirana) točka Vista: Parkirišče je brezplačno do štiri ure in so sanitarije. Do te parcele je mogoče priti le z severa ZDA 101, če se peljete čez most in se nameravate nato vrniti v San Francisco, boste plačali cestnino. Cestninske postaje so v celoti elektronske, zato ni tako enostavno, kot da dvignete nekaj gotovine. Izvedite, kako plačati, v cestninskem priročniku Golden Gate Bridge, ki je napisan z mislijo na obiskovalca zunaj mesta.


Kako je bil zgrajen most Golden Gate v San Franciscu in zakaj v resnici ni rdeč

Ko sem se lotil oblikovanja moje druge tetovaže, sem vedel dve stvari: 1) želel sem preprosto risbo črte, ki je potekala od desnega komolca do zapestja, in 2) moral sem vgraditi most Golden Gate način. Ker se je San Francisco v zadnjih nekaj desetletjih drastično preoblikoval, sem bil (verjetno preveč) ponosen, da sem eden redkih pravih domačinov, rojenih in vzgojenih na območju mesta ob vhodu v most Presidio. In čeprav mi je udobno, da vizualna predstavitev ikonične znamenitosti na moji roki govori sama zase, kopanje v zgodovino in pomen mostu ponuja precej kul vpogled v edinstven čar mojega domačega kraja.

Izvirna ideja

Vse se je začelo leta 1916. Ali pravzaprav se je začelo približno štiri desetletja prej, leta 1872, ko je železniški podjetnik Charles Crocker pozval k mostu, ki bi prečkal ožino Golden Gate, tri milje (5 kilometrov) dolg odsek vode, ki povezuje od zaliva San Francisco do Tihega oceana. Toda šele v začetku 20. stoletja se je projekt povečal, saj je število prebivalcev območja naraščalo, prometni zastoji na pristaniščih za trajekte pa so postajali resno vprašanje. James H. Wilkins, strukturni inženir in urednik časopisa pri Biltenu klicev v San Franciscu, se je povezal z inženirjem mesta San Francisco Michaelom M. O'Shaughnessyjem in se začel pogovarjati o tem, kaj bi v resnici potrebovali, da bi most, ki povezuje mesto z Marin Headlands resničnost.

Tri leta pozneje so uradniki v San Franciscu uradno zahtevali, da O'Shaughnessy preuči možnost gradnje mostu, ki sega prek ožine, inženir pa se je začel posvetovati s kolegi po vsej državi. Seveda, ideja o povezovanju San Francisca z North Bayom je bila lepa, a ali je bila finančno izvedljiva? Večina poznavalcev industrije je špekuliralo, da bi takšno podjetje stalo več kot 100 milijonov dolarjev in da ga - morda še pomembneje - preprosto ni bilo mogoče zgraditi. Joseph Baermann Strauss pa je prosil za razliko.

Strauss, inženir s sedežem v Chicagu, je predstavil načrt, s katerim se je most zdel ne le mogoč, ampak tudi povsem dostopen: Straussov načrt je ocenil, da bi bilo gradnjo mogoče izvesti za 25 do 30 milijonov dolarjev. Strauss je 28. junija 1921 predložil svoje predhodne skice O'Shaughnessyju in Edwardu Raineyju, tajniku Jamesu Rolphu, županu San Francisca. Medtem ko je njegova prvotna zasnova (17 milijonov dolarjev vreden hibridni razpon konzolno-vzmetenega) potrebovala nekaj prilagoditev in ni O'Shaughnessy je oblikovanje javno objavil decembra 1922 in čeprav je tisk to opisal kot & quotugly, & quot; je bilo javnosti presenetljivo malo nasprotovanja ambicioznim prizadevanjem.

Gradbeni proces

Čeprav se je zdelo, da so državljani razmeroma odprti za odobritev velikega podjetja, je bilo na poti do gradnje več kot nekaj zastojev. Najprej sta morala O'Shaughnessy in Strauss zbrati posebno okrožje zvezne države Kalifornija, da bi nadzirala financiranje, načrtovanje in gradnjo mostu, da bi vsem okrajem omogočila glas v tem procesu. Toda na koncu je bila usoda mostu v rokah vojnega ministrstva, ki je zakonsko odločalo o vseh pristaniških gradnjah, ki bi lahko vplivale na ladijski promet ali vojaško logistiko. Ko je vojaško ministrstvo 16. maja 1924 opravilo zaslišanje o možnem vplivu mostu na plovbo in finančno breme, so stvari postale trnove. Veliko ljudi je izrazilo nasprotovanje, zlasti lokalna trajektna podjetja, ki so začela resno kampanjo proti premostitvam, da bi ustavila gradnjo. In uspelo jim je - osem let.

Toda po skoraj desetletju jurisdikcije in negotovosti sta Straussu in O'Shaughnessyju uspela ustvariti most Golden Gate in okrožje Highway (sestavljeno iz šestih okrožij tega območja), ki jih je kalifornijski državni zakonodajalec leta 1928 vključil kot edini subjekt, odgovoren za končno zasnovo, gradnjo in financiranje prihodnjega mostu.

Vojni sekretar Patrick Hurley je gradbeno dovoljenje izdal 11. avgusta 1930, gradbeni proces pa se je uradno začel skoraj tri leta pozneje, 5. januarja 1933. Do takrat je bila velika večina prebivalcev ogorčena, v bližnji okolici pa je prišlo do prelomne slovesnosti. Crissy Field je domačinom pomagal, da bi bil nekoliko dolgotrajen, a lažji od pričakovanega procesa.

Zanimivo dejstvo o mostu Golden Gate je, da je bil dokončan pred rokom in v okviru proračuna, kar je v današnjem gradbenem svetu redkost, "piše po elektronski pošti Paolo Cosulich-Schwartz, vodja javnih zadev pri mostu Golden Gate, Highway & amp. . & quotMost je bil dokončan maja 1937 v okviru proračuna in šest mesecev pred načrtovanim rokom. Gradnja je stala približno 39 milijonov dolarjev, kar je v današnjih dolarjih približno 500 milijonov dolarjev. & Quot

Ne samo, da se je most uveljavil kot razmeroma hiter in neboleč projekt (kar zadeva masivne gradnje), temveč se je s svojimi gradbenimi postopki in varnostnimi ukrepi zapisal tudi v zgodovino.

"Most Golden Gate je bil pionirski projekt za zaščito delavcev, ki je od graditeljev mostov zahteval, da nosijo zaščitne klobuke, in namestil prvo varnostno mrežo za delavce na mostu," pravi Cosulich-Schwartz. & quot; Ponosen sem, da danes na mostu Golden Gate živi zapuščina varnosti. & quot Čeprav je med gradnjo umrlo 11 moških (kar se v tistem tveganem obdobju gradnje ni zgodilo), je varnostna mreža, obešena pod "podom" mosta med gradnjo, rešila življenje 19 moških, ki so postali znani kot & quotHalfway-to-Hell Club. & quot

Ikonično oblikovanje

Obstaja razlog, zakaj sem želel, da bi bil most predstavljen v mojem domačem kraju s poklonom - poleg njegovega pomena kot takoj prepoznavnega rezanega San Francisca, je tako prekleto lep. In ta privlačna zasnova je zahtevala veliko premišljenega načrtovanja in predanosti.

Se spomnite Straussovih prvotnih načrtov za simetrični konzolno-viseči hibridni most? Medtem ko je njegovo osebje pod vodstvom Charlesa A. Ellisa menilo, da je ideja z inženirskega vidika praktična, so nekateri strokovnjaki začeli postavljati vprašanja. Ellis je pripeljal profesorja Georgea F. Swaina z univerze Harvard in Leona Moisseiffa, ki je zasnoval newyorški Manhattanski most, ki bi služil v odboru svetovalcev za projekt - in Moisseiff ni bil prodan v zasnovi. 15. avgusta 1929 je odbor imenoval Moisseiffa in inženirje O.H. Ammanna in profesorja inženiringa UC Berkeleyja Charlesa Derletha mlajšega, ki bosta poleg Straussa služila kot svetovalni odbor inženirjev.

V nekem trenutku svojih razprav (točen datum ni znan) se je odbor odločil, da bo prešel s prvotnega Straussovega predloga na zasnovo visečega mostu. Most Golden Gate, poročilo glavnega inženirja, ki ga je Strauss napisal septembra 1937, ne podaja podrobnosti o prehodu s prvotno predlagane zasnove na razpon vzmetenja, ki ga navdihuje Moisseiff, ampak preprosto navaja & quot. V obdobju, ki je preteklo, so vse prednosti, ki jih ima most s konzolno-visečim mostom, praktično izginile in na priporočilo glavnega inženirja je bil tip konzolno-vzmetenega oproščen v korist preprostega tipa vzmetenja. & Quot tudi postopek oblikovanja: Medtem ko je bil Ellis odgovoren za vodenje tisočih potrebnih izračunov, ga je Strauss leta 1931 brezskrbno odpustil in delo predal njegovemu pomočniku. Do danes se Ellis redko omenja v razpravah o mostu.

Ampak nazaj k temu oblikovanju. Morda je najbolj prepoznavna značilnost mostu njegov odtenek-samo prosim, ne kličite ga & quot; & quot & quot; Mednarodna oranžna je značilna barva mostu Golden Gate, «pravi Cosulich-Schwartz. & quotBarvo je za primarno barvo mostu izbral posvetovalni arhitekt Irving Morrow, ki je opazil rdeči svinčeni temeljni premaz jekla, ki prihaja iz mlinov na vzhodni obali. Mislil je, da bo rdeči temeljni premaz služil dvojnemu namenu, da bo most izstopal za ladje in letala v gosti megli, hkrati pa se zlil z naravno lepoto območja, ki obkroža most. Po dolgem preučevanju in razpravah je bila za projekt izbrana barva, ki jo danes tako tesno identificiramo z mostom Golden Gate, in se lahko zahvalimo Irvingu Morrowu za značilen odtenek mostu Golden Gate. & Quot

Danes je most Golden Gate ključna prometna povezava med San Franciscom in okrožjem Marin, glavni razpon dolžine 2,7 kilometra, dolg 1,7 milje, pa dnevno prepelje približno 112.000 vozil. Ne samo, da se lahko število cestnih pasov, namenjenih južni ali severni strani, spreminja ves dan, da se prilagodi spreminjajočim se prometnim vzorcem, ampak so obiskovalci dobrodošli, da hodijo in kolesarijo po dolžini mejnika. Ali pa, če ste ponosni domačin, si njegovo slavo trajno vtisnite na kožo.

Več kot 2 milijardi vozil je prečkalo most Golden Gate (severno in južno) od njegovega odprtja za promet 28. maja 1937.


6 stvari, ki jih o mostu Golden Gate morda ne veste - ZGODOVINA

No, zaradi tega bi ustavil avto in skočil

cyberspacedout: Vaš bend je zanič, če most vključuje le brenčanje.

cyberspacedout: Vaš bend je zanič, če most vključuje le brenčanje.

O tem je veliko brenčanja, res odmeva pri domačinih.

Hammettman: No, zaradi tega bi ustavil avto in skočil

Prekleto, tri sekunde. Na to bi moral pomisliti že v prvem.

Vern: Prekleti Tesla, mrtev si že skoraj osemdeset let. Čas je, da z oscilatorjem odpravimo neumnosti.

Ali Adam Savage še vedno ne živi v San Franciscu?

Por que tan serioso: Nanesti morajo več barve. Resno. Koliko ton barve Rhode Islanda je na tem jebem?

Občasno odstranijo barvo. Prijatelj v osemdesetih letih je priplul pod most in v bližini je v vodo padlo pet kilogramov.

jclaggett: Vern: Prekleto Tesla, mrtev si že skoraj osemdeset let. Čas je, da odpravimo te neumnosti z oscilatorjem.

Ali Adam Savage še vedno ne živi v San Franciscu?

Hmmm. morda je skrajni čas, da preveri, kje se nahaja.

Čeprav je bil to zanimiv poskus.

smučarski inštruktor: Vsaj to ni slam ples. [iFrame https://www.youtube.com/embed/j-zczJXS​xnw?autoplay=1&widget_referrer=https%3​A%2F%2Fwww.fark.com&start=0&enablejsap​i=2 2Fwww.fark.com & amp ​widgetid = 1]

Ni ravno prava glasba zanj.

olrasputin: Zdi se, da so po nesreči namestili nove lastne vrednosti skupaj s tistimi novimi ograjami.

Ali pa samo razveljavili nekatere obstoječe v resonanco.

Kompleksni sistemi s povratnimi zankami imajo naravno resonanco. V resonančni zanki se energija razprši in če je toliko zvoka, to pomeni, da veliko mehanske energije počne nekaj, česar niso načrtovali. Če je nenadzorovan, lahko most raztrga.

Lahko je resonanca v nečem dodatnem, kot so ograje. Nič hudega, samo nadležno in morda varnostno tveganje, ne pa tudi grožnja celovitosti mostu.

Ali pa je lahko v nečem strukturnem, kot so viseče žice ali nosilci. Če je tako, to ni dobro.

Prepričan sem, da je inženir izrekel besede "Oh, shiat", ko so to prvič videli.


25 stvari, ki jih o San Franciscu verjetno niste vedeli

Da bi bil na tekočem z vsem, kar se dogaja v San Franciscu, se pogosto odpravim na izlete, obiščem lokalne muzeje in preberem zgodovino mesta. Vse to me je pripeljalo do ustvarjanja seznama zabavnih in zanimivih informacij o SF.  

Berite naprej in odkrijte 25 stvari, ki jih o San Franciscu verjetno niste vedeli.

Zavrnitev odgovornosti: Od nekaterih povezav na tej strani prejemam majhno provizijo.

1. Pred preimenovanjem v San Francisco se je to majhno mesto ob zalivu imenovalo Yerba Buena. Yerba Buena v španščini pomeni "dobro zelišče". Ustanovljen je bil leta 1776, vendar se je preimenoval leta 1846. Trg Portsmouth v kitajski četrti je bil lokacija javnega trga v Yerba Buena.

2. SF ima drugo največjo kitajsko četrt zunaj Azije. Je tudi najstarejša v Severni Ameriki. Dolga je približno eno miljo in široka eno miljo in pol. V kitajski četrti živi več kot 100.000 ljudi. To je najbolj gosto naseljena soseska v mestu.

3. SF ima tudi največji in najstarejši Japantown v ZDA. To je tudi eden od treh Japonskih mest, ki so še vedno v ZDA.

4. Azijski umetniški muzej ima umetnine iz okoli 221 pr. Najdete jih na kitajski razstavi.

5. Mesto je zgrajeno na več kot 50 hribih. Mnogi verjamejo, da ima le 7 ali 9 hribov, vendar je skupaj več kot 50 imenovanih hribov. Nekateri najbolj znani so Russian Hill, Nob Hill, Telegraph Hill in Twin Peaks. Nekaj ​​manj znanih so Golden Mine Hill, Excelsior Heights in Tank Hill.  

6. Mnogi verjamejo, da so vode zaliva SF zapolnjene z nevarnimi morskimi psi, vendar v zalivu pravzaprav ni morskih psov, ki jedo ljudi. Čeprav v zalivu živijo morski psi, je večina majhnih in ne zelo nevarnih. V bližini Tihega oceana živijo številni veliki beli morski psi, ki pa se redko odpravijo v zaliv. (Čeprav je bila v zalivu SF opažena velika belina, ki je bila oktobra 2015 prvič ujeta na kamero!)

7. SF je dom največjega tekmovanja ameriških vin na svetu. Vsako leto februarja poteka vsakoletno tekmovanje v kroničnih vinih. Zmagovalce in druge udeležence lahko vzorčite na javni degustaciji, ki bo potekala nekaj tednov po razglasitvi zmagovalcev.

8. Poleg ljubezni do vina imajo domačini radi tudi neodvisne filme. SF vsako leto gosti več kot 50 filmskih festivalov. Nekateri so veliki mednarodni festivali. Drugi so manjši z zelo osredotočeno filmsko ponudbo, kot so festival grškega filma, festival judovskega filma in festival ameriškega indijskega filma.

9. Ne smete pokopati svojih mrtvih v mejah mesta. Zaradi te omejitve ostajata samo dva pokopališča. Eden je za misijo San Francisco de Asis. Drugo je nacionalno pokopališče v Presidio. Leta 1902 je nadzorni svet glasoval o ustavitvi vseh pokopov v mejah mesta zaradi prostorskih težav. Da bi naredili več prostora, so se nato odločili, da bodo sedanje grobove preselili v Colmo. Ta premik se je zgodil med dvajsetimi in štiridesetimi leti prejšnjega stoletja.  

10. Prvi električni televizor je leta 1927 v SF izumil Philio Farnsworth. Njegov delovni laboratorij je bil na 202 Green Street.

11. Listina Združenih narodov je bila podpisana v San Franciscu. Podpisan je bil v vojnem spominskem centru in uprizoritvenih umetnostih v okrožju Civic Center 26. junija 1945.  

12. Največ škode leta 1906. ni povzročil potres. Požari, ki so se začeli po potresu, so mestu povzročili približno 90% škode.  

13. Razstava Panama Pacific leta 1915 je bila ponovno rojstvo San Francisca po uničujočem potresu leta 1906. Mestu je omogočilo obnovo in pokazalo, da so spet mednarodno mesto. Devetmesečnega dogodka se je udeležilo skoraj 19 milijonov ljudi z vsega sveta.  

14. Barva mostu Golden Gate se imenuje International Orange. To ni bila barva s prvotnega seznama možnosti. To je bil temeljni premaz, ki se je uporabljal za zaščito jekla za most med tranzitom in arhitektu je bil bolj všeč kot drugim možnostim, zato ga je izbral za uradno barvo.  

15. Namesto enobarvne je ameriška mornarica želela, da bi bil most Golden Gate pobarvan v črno -rumene črte. Mislili so, da bo most lažje videl skozi meglo, še posebej, če bo napaden.

16. Na območju zaliva je vsako leto na stotine potresov. Vendar je večina tako majhnih (manj kot 3,0), da jih ne čutite in se o njih ne govori pogosto.

17. Al Capone je z vlakom prišel v Alcatraz. Takratni redar je bil tako zaskrbljen zaradi varnosti, da so naložili vagon z vlakom na barko, namesto da bi ujetnike raztovorili z vlaka in jih premaknili na čoln. Capone je bil glavni razlog, saj so menili, da bi lahko poskušal pobegniti ali pa bi prišlo do težav, če bi ga odstranili iz vagona, preden je ta prišel v Alcatraz.  

18. SF ni najbolj megleno mesto v ZDA, ta čast gre našim prijateljem na severu, Point Reyes. Niso le najbolj megleno mesto v ZDA, ampak tudi v Severni Ameriki. Tu pa imamo svoj pravičen delež megle. V njem smo pokriti več kot 100 dni na leto, julija in avgusta pa sta najbolj meglena meseca.

19. San Francisco ni veliko mesto. V mestu in okrožju San Francisco živi le okoli 830.000 ljudi. Vendar pa na celotnem območju zaliva živi več kot 7 milijonov ljudi.

20. Nikoli vam ne bo zmanjkalo novih restavracij, da poskusite tukaj. V SF je v vsakem trenutku odprtih več kot 3.500 restavracij.

21. V San Franciscu se je rodilo veliko znanih ljudi. Tu je seznam nekaterih najbolj znanih:  

22. Makoto Hagiwara iz San Francisca je znan kot ustvarjalec sodobnega piškotka sreče. Bil je prva oseba v ZDA, ki jo je v poznih 1890 -ih postregla na svojem čajnem vrtu. Je tudi oseba za znamenitim japonskim čajnim vrtom v parku Golden Gate SF.

23. Joseph B. Friedman je v San Franciscu izumil bendy slamo. Opazil je hčerino frustracijo, ko je poskušala piti iz čiste slamice, in izumil ta izum, da bi ji olajšal. Leta 1937 je zanj prejel patent.

24. San Francisco je dolg le sedem milj in širok sedem milj. Zaradi svoje majhnosti je v enem dnevu zelo enostavno videti veliko v SF.

25. Za izgradnjo mostu Golden Gate (1933 - 1937) so potrebovali le štiri leta. Nedavna obnova oaklandske strani mostu Bay je trajala 11 let (2002 - 2013).  


6 stvari, ki jih o mostu Golden Gate morda ne veste - ZGODOVINA

Pred kratkim sem se upokojil iz kalifornijske avtocestne patrulje po 23 letih službe. Večina teh 23 let je bila porabljena za patruljiranje na južnem koncu okrožja Marin, ki vključuje most Golden Gate. Most je ikonična zgradba, znana po vsem svetu po čudovitih razgledih na San Francisco, Tihi ocean in navdihujočo arhitekturo.

Na žalost je tudi magnet za samomor, saj je eno najbolj uporabljenih mest na svetu. Most Golden Gate je bil odprt leta 1937. Joseph Strauss, glavni inženir, zadolžen za gradnjo mostu, je dejal: "Most je praktično odporen proti samomoru. Samomor z mostu ni ne praktičen ne verjeten. & Quot Toda od njegovega odprtja je več kot 1600 ljudi skočilo v smrt s tega mostu. Nekateri verjamejo, da vas bo potovanje med obema stolpoma pripeljalo v drugo dimenzijo - ta most je bil romantiziran kot tak - da vas padec s tega osvobodi vseh skrbi in žalosti, vode spodaj pa vam bodo očistile dušo.

Naj pa vam povem, kaj se dejansko zgodi, ko se most uporabi kot sredstvo za samomor. Po prostem padcu štiri do pet sekund telo udari v vodo s hitrostjo približno 75 milj na uro. Ta udarec razbije kosti, nekatere pa nato prebijejo vitalne organe. Večina jih umre zaradi udarca. Tisti, ki na splošno nemočno mlatijo v vodi, nato pa se utopijo. Ne verjamem, da tisti, ki razmišljajo o tej metodi samomora, spoznajo, kako grozljivo smrt bodo imeli. To je vrvica. Razen okoli dveh stolpov je vzporedno z mostom 32 centimetrov jekla. Tu večina ljudi stoji, preden si vzame življenje. Iz izkušenj vam lahko povem, da jih je, ko je oseba na tej vrvici in v najtemnejšem času, zelo težko vrniti nazaj. To fotografijo sem posnel lani, ko se je ta mlada ženska pogovarjala z častnikom, ki razmišlja o svojem življenju. Z veseljem vam želim povedati, da smo bili tisti dan uspešni, da smo jo spravili nazaj čez ograjo.

Ko sem prvič začel delati na mostu, nismo imeli formalnega usposabljanja. Težko ste se prebili skozi te klice. To ni bila le slaba storitev za tiste, ki razmišljajo o samomoru, ampak tudi za častnike. Od takrat smo prišli daleč, daleč. Zdaj veterani in psihologi usposabljajo nove častnike.

To je Jason Garber. Jasona sem spoznal 22. julija lani, ko sem prejel klic možnega samomorilnega subjekta, ki sedi na vrvici blizu sredine razpona. Odzval sem se in ko sem prišel, sem opazil Jasona, ki je govoril s častnikom Golden Gate Bridgea. Jason je bil star komaj 32 let in sem je priletel iz New Jerseyja. Pravzaprav je še dvakrat priletel sem iz New Jerseyja, da bi poskusil samomor na tem mostu. Po približno eni uri pogovora z Jasonom nas je vprašal, ali poznamo zgodbo o Pandorini škatli. Ob spominu na vašo grško mitologijo je Zeus ustvaril Pandoro in jo s škatlo poslal na Zemljo ter ji rekel: "Nikoli, nikoli ne odpri te škatle." Nekega dne je radovednost premagala Pandoro in odprla je škatlo. Iz človeka so odletele kuge, žalosti in najrazličnejša zla. Edino dobro v škatli je bilo upanje. Jason nas je nato vprašal: & quot Kaj se zgodi, ko odprete škatlo in upate, da ni tam? & Quot Nekaj ​​trenutkov se je ustavil, se nagnil na desno in odšel. Ta prijazen, inteligenten mladenič iz New Jerseyja je pravkar storil samomor.

Tisti večer sem govoril s starši Jasona in mislim, da med pogovorom z njimi nisem zvenelo, kot da bi mi šlo zelo dobro, ker me je naslednji dan poklical družinski rabin, da me preveri . Starši Jasona so ga to prosili. Kolateralna škoda samomora prizadene toliko ljudi.

Postavljam vam naslednja vprašanja: Kaj bi storili, če bi bil vaš družinski član, prijatelj ali ljubljena oseba samomor? Kaj bi rekel? Bi vedeli, kaj bi rekli? Po mojih izkušnjah ne govorite samo vi, ampak poslušajte. Poslušajte, da razumete. Ne prepirajte se, krivite ali povejte osebi, ki jo poznate, kako se počuti, ker verjetno ne. S tem, da ste tam, ste morda le prelomnica, ki jo potrebujejo. Če mislite, da je nekdo samomor, se ga ne bojte soočiti in postaviti vprašanja. Eden od načinov, kako jim postaviti vprašanje, je takšen: & quotOstali so v podobnih okoliščinah razmišljali o tem, da bi končali svoje življenje, ali ste imeli te misli? & Quot Če se soočite s človekom, jim lahko reši življenje in postane za njih prelomnica. Nekaj ​​drugih znakov, ki jih je treba iskati: brezupnost, prepričanje, da so stvari grozne in nikoli ne bo več nemoči, prepričanje, da glede tega ne morete storiti ničesar zaradi nedavnega socialnega umika in izgube zanimanja za življenje.

Ta govor sem si omislil šele pred nekaj dnevi in ​​od gospe sem prejel e -poštno sporočilo, da bi vam rad prebral njeno pismo. 19. januarja letos je izgubila sina in mi je to e -poštno sporočilo napisala pred nekaj dnevi. Z njenim dovoljenjem in blagoslovom sem vam to prebrala.

& "Zdravo, Kevin. Predstavljam si, da ste na konferenci TED. To mora biti res prava izkušnja. Mislim, da bi moral ta vikend iti po mostu. Hotel sem ti samo zapisati. Upam, da dobite besedo mnogim ljudem in da gredo domov in se o tem pogovarjajo s prijatelji, ki to povedo svojim prijateljem itd. Še vedno sem precej otopela, vendar opazim več trenutkov, ko se resnično zavedam, da se Mike ne vrača domov. Mike se je 19. januarja vozil iz Petalume v San Francisco, da bi gledal tekmo 49ersa z očetom. Tam mu ni nikoli uspelo. Poklical sem policijo v Petalumi in ga tisti večer prijavil, da je pogrešan. Naslednje jutro sta k meni prišla dva policista in poročala, da je avtomobil Mike pri mostu. Priča ga je opazila, ko je skočil z mostu ob 13.58. prejšnji dan. Najlepša hvala za vstanek tistih, ki so morda le začasno prešibki, da bi se postavili zase. Kdo še ni bil nizko, ne da bi imel resno duševno bolezen? Končati tega ne bi smelo biti tako enostavno. Moje molitve so z vami za vaš boj. GGB, Golden Gate Bridge, naj bi bil prehod čez naš čudovit zaliv, ne pokopališče. Vso srečo ta teden. Vicky. & Quot

Ne predstavljam si poguma, ki ga potrebuje, da se spusti do tistega mostu in hodi po poti, ki jo je tisti dan ujel njen sin, in tudi poguma, da nadaljuje.

Rad bi vam predstavil moškega, ki ga imenujem upanje in pogum. 11. marca 2005 sem se odzval na radijski klic možnega samomorilnega subjekta na pločniku mostu pri severnem stolpu. I rode my motorcycle down the sidewalk and observed this man, Kevin Berthia, standing on the sidewalk. When he saw me, he immediately traversed that pedestrian rail, and stood on that small pipe which goes around the tower. For the next hour and a half, I listened as Kevin spoke about his depression and hopelessness. Kevin decided on his own that day to come back over that rail and give life another chance. When Kevin came back over, I congratulated him. "This is a new beginning, a new life." But I asked him, "What was it that made you come back and give hope and life another chance?" And you know what he told me? He said, "You listened. You let me speak, and you just listened."

Shortly after this incident, I received a letter from Kevin's mother, and I have that letter with me, and I'd like to read it to you.

"Dear Mr. Briggs, Nothing will erase the events of March 11, but you are one of the reasons Kevin is still with us. I truly believe Kevin was crying out for help. He has been diagnosed with a mental illness for which he has been properly medicated. I adopted Kevin when he was only six months old, completely unaware of any hereditary traits, but, thank God, now we know. Kevin is straight, as he says. We truly thank God for you. Sincerely indebted to you, Narvella Berthia." And on the bottom she writes, "P.S. When I visited San Francisco General Hospital that evening, you were listed as the patient. Boy, did I have to straighten that one out."

Today, Kevin is a loving father and contributing member of society. He speaks openly about the events that day and his depression in the hopes that his story will inspire others.

Suicide is not just something I've encountered on the job. It's personal. My grandfather committed suicide by poisoning. That act, although ending his own pain, robbed me from ever getting to know him. This is what suicide does. For most suicidal folks, or those contemplating suicide, they wouldn't think of hurting another person. They just want their own pain to end. Typically, this is accomplished in just three ways: sleep, drugs or alcohol, or death. In my career, I've responded to and been involved in hundreds of mental illness and suicide calls around the bridge. Of those incidents I've been directly involved with, I've only lost two, but that's two too many. One was Jason. The other was a man I spoke to for about an hour. During that time, he shook my hand on three occasions. On that final handshake, he looked at me, and he said, "Kevin, I'm sorry, but I have to go." And he leapt. Horrible, absolutely horrible.

I do want to tell you, though, the vast majority of folks that we do get to contact on that bridge do not commit suicide. Additionally, that very few who have jumped off the bridge and lived and can talk about it, that one to two percent, most of those folks have said that the second that they let go of that rail, they knew that they had made a mistake and they wanted to live. I tell people, the bridge not only connects Marin to San Francisco, but people together also. That connection, or bridge that we make, is something that each and every one of us should strive to do. Suicide is preventable. There is help. There is hope.


Most Golden Gate

Once called "the bridge that couldn't be built," today it is one the seven wonders of the modern world. This magnificent span, perhaps San Francisco's most famous landmark, opened in 1937 after a four-year struggle against relentless winds, fog, rock and treacherous tides.

Crossing the strait of the Golden Gate from San Francisco's Presidio to the Marin headlands for 1.7 miles is the world-renowned Golden Gate Bridge, easily identified by its International Orange color. Opened in 1937, the bridge was built at a cost of $35 million in principal and $39 million in interest and 11 workers’ lives. The single-suspension span is anchored by twin towers that reach skyward 746 feet, and was once taller than any building in San Francisco. To support the suspended roadway, two cables, each more than 7,000 feet in length and both containing 80,000 miles of wire stretch over the top of the towers and are rooted in concrete anchorages on shore. More than 10 years in planning due to formidable opposition, but only four years in actual construction, the Golden Gate Bridge brought the communities of San Francisco and Marin counties closer together.

General Visitor Info

Pedestrians including wheelchair users and bicyclists can go on the sidewalks of the bridge during daylight hours but roller blades, skateboards and roller skates are not permitted. There are vista points on both north and south sides of the bridge with parking lots. For information on sidewalk closures due to construction, visit goldengatebridge.org/bikesbridge/bikes.php.

If you can’t visit the bridge in person, do the virtual bridge walk and don’t forget to check out the view from the top of the south tower. Because of heavy congestion on the bridge, vista points may occasionally be closed to vehicles.

How to Get There

From downtown, take #38 Geary Boulevard to Park Presidio and transfer to #28 northbound to get to the Golden Gate Bridge. If you’re taking Golden Gate Transit from San Francisco, the #10, #70 or #80 lines will take you to the bridge.

For additional information, routes and schedules, please visit the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency and Golden Gate Transit sites.

The free PresidiGo Shuttle's downtown route will also take you to the Golden Gate Bridge Welcome Center. The shuttle system is a great option to use to explore the Presidio, with free and accessible service seven days a week, and with 40 stops within the national park.

If interested in biking across the bridge, the Presidio offers bike rentals and electric bike share opportunities, plus a recommended bike path through Crissy Field. For more information, visit the Presidio online.

Where to Stay

If you are planning to stay in San Francisco, there are plenty of hotels nearby or with views of the Golden Gate Bridge.

Get more information on the neighborhoods here.

Instagram Moments

One of the most photographed landmarks in the world, the Golden Gate Bridge is an Instagram hit whenever it’s posted (#goldengatebridge, #thatsfbridge).Here are a few favorite angles and best time of day:

Jutro
Under the bridge angle from Fort Point site also affords unusual afternoon view of the city skyline from Fort Point Pier immediately east of the seawall.

Popoldne
From Baker Beach, get an outside-the-gate view of the bridge and the Marin headlands.

Late Afternoon/Evening
Golden Gate Bridge with the city skyline in the background from Marin headlands north of bridge take Alexander Avenue turnoff and follow Golden Gate National Recreation Area signs leading under Hwy. 101 south toward San Francisco take first turn up to headlands.

For minimalists, point your smartphone upwards to get soaring close-ups of the towers and cables. Local photographer Louis Raphael who photographs the bridge almost daily from his Lands End neighborhood also offers these favorites:

  • Beginning or very end of Lands End trail at sunrise has two very scenic vista points. Note: Visitors should adhere to all signage in the park and even in approved hiking areas, the public should keep a safe distance from all cliff edges
  • Mile Rock beach at sunset or sunrise has a unique perspective of the Golden Gate Bridge.

How Long is the Golden Gate Bridge?

The Golden Gate Bridge is 8,981 feet long.

How Tall is the Golden Gate Bridge?

The Golden Gate Bridge is 746 feet tall.

Did You Know?

  • The Golden Gate Bridge has lost 7,500 tons (in weight) since it opened in 1937.
  • It is estimated that 5,000 - 10,000 gallons of paint are used to repaint the Golden Gate Bridge each year.
  • Three babies have been born on the Golden Gate Bridge. All of them have been boys.
  • The name came from the fact that the Golden Gate Strait (named by John Fremont) is the entrance into San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean.
  • International Orange was selected as the color of the bridge because it provided visibility in the fog for passing ships and also because it was a color that fit in naturally with the bridge’s setting and the surrounding land area.
  • The bridge has only been closed three times due to weather since it was built all three times due to high winds gusting close to or over 70 miles per hour.
  • The bridge has also been closed for visits from dignitaries President Franklin D. Roosevelt and President Charles de Gaulle of France and also on its 50th and 75th Anniversaries.

Movies that included the Golden Gate Bridge:

Ant-Man (2015)
Big Hero 6
(2014)
Rise of the Planet of the Apes (2011)
Monsters Vs. Tujci (2009)
Mleko (2008)
X-Men: The Last Stand (2006)
The Pursuit of Happyness (2006)
Hulk (2003)
The Core (2003)
The Rock (1996)
Interview with a Vampire (1994)
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991)
The Abyss
(1989)
Big Trouble in Little China (1986)
Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986)
A View to a Kill (1985)
Basic Instinct (1982)
Superman (1978)
Umazani Harry (1971)
The Birds (1963)
Vertigo (1958)
The Maltese Falcon (1941)


Vsebina

The deck of the bridge is about 245 feet (75 m) above the water. [5] After a fall of four seconds, jumpers hit the water at around 75 mph (120 km/h). Most of the jumpers die due to impact trauma. About 5% of the jumpers survive the initial impact but generally drown or die of hypothermia in the cold water. [6] [7]

Most suicidal jumps from the bridge have occurred on the side facing the bay. The side facing the Pacific is closed to pedestrians. [8]

An official suicide count was kept until the year 1995, [9] sorted according to which of the bridge's 128 lamp posts the jumper was nearest when he or she jumped. [10] The official count ended on June 5, 1995 on the 997th jump [11] jumper No. 1000, Eric Atkinson (25), jumped on July 3, 1995. [9] Earlier in 1995, a local shock jock had offered a case of Snapple to the family of the 1000th suicide victim. [12] Consequently, Marin County coroner Ken Holmes asked local media to stop reporting the total number of jumpers. [12] By 2012 the unofficial count exceeded 1,600 (in which the body was recovered or someone saw the jump) [1] and new suicides were occurring about once every two weeks, according to a San Francisco Chronicle analysis. [13] The most suicides in one month were in August 2013, when 10 jumped. The total count for the year 2013 was 46, with an additional 118 attempts prevented, making it the year with the highest tally so far. [7] [12] [14] The rate of incidence of attempts has risen to nearly one every other day. [12] The youngest known jumper is five-year-old Marilyn DeMont in 1945, she was told to jump by her father who followed her. [1] [15]

For comparison, the Aokigahara Forest in Japan, has a record of 108 bodies, found within the forest in 2004, with an average of 30 a year. [16] There were 34 bridge-jump suicides in 2006 whose bodies were recovered, in addition to four jumps that were witnessed but whose bodies were never recovered, and several bodies recovered suspected to be from bridge jumps. The California Highway Patrol removed 70 apparently suicidal people from the bridge that year. [17]

There is no accurate figure on the number of suicides or completed jumps since 1937, because many were not witnessed. People have been known to travel to San Francisco specifically to jump off the bridge, and may take a bus or cab to the site police sometimes find abandoned rental cars in the parking lot. Currents beneath the bridge are strong and some jumpers have more than likely been washed out to sea without being seen.

The fatality rate of jumping is roughly 98%. As of July 2013, only 34 people are known to have survived the jump. [3] Those who do survive strike the water feet-first and at a slight angle, although individuals may still sustain broken bones or internal injuries. One young woman, Sarah Rutledge Birnbaum, survived, but returned to jump again and died the second time. [18] One young man survived a jump in 1979, swam to shore, and drove himself to a hospital. The impact cracked several of his vertebrae. [19]

Engineering professor Natalie Jeremijenko, as part of her "Bureau of Inverse Technology" art collective, created a "Despondency Index" by correlating the Dow Jones Industrial Average with the number of jumpers detected by "Suicide Boxes" containing motion-detecting cameras, which she claimed to have set up under the bridge. [20] The boxes purportedly recorded 17 jumps in three months, far greater than the official count. The Whitney Museum, although questioning whether Jeremijenko's suicide-detection technology actually existed, nevertheless included her project in its prestigious Whitney Biennial. [21]

The Golden Gate Bridge is referred to by Krista Tippett as a "suicide magnet." [22]

Various methods have been tried to reduce the number of suicides. The bridge is fitted with suicide-hotline telephones and staff patrol the bridge in carts, looking for people who appear to be planning to jump. The bridge is now closed to pedestrians at night. Cyclists are still permitted across at night, but can buzz themselves in and out through the remotely controlled security gates. [23] Attempts to introduce a suicide barrier have been thwarted by engineering difficulties, high costs, and public opposition. [24] One recurring proposal had been to build a barrier to replace or augment the low railing, a component of the bridge's original architectural design, as amended by the second designer in the final blueprint. [A] New barriers have eliminated suicides at other landmarks around the world, but were opposed for the Golden Gate Bridge for reasons of cost, aesthetics, and safety, as the load from a poorly designed barrier could significantly affect the bridge's structural integrity during a strong windstorm. Despite these concerns, on June 27, 2014, California approved a funding plan to install a suicide barrier. [25]

A volunteer group called the Bridgewatch Angels was founded by Pleasanton Police Lieutenant, Mia Munayer, in 2011. During every major holiday and while off-duty, Munayer mobilizes hundreds of volunteers to patrol the bridge looking for anyone who may be contemplating suicide. Before embarking on their morning or afternoon shifts, Bridgewatch Angels volunteers receive training on the warning signs of someone in crisis, indirect and direct ways to engage with people walking alone on the bridge, and safety protocol when interacting with a suicidal person requiring police intervention. Each Bridgewatch event is dedicated to the memory of a person who jumped from the Golden Gate Bridge and their family joins the Bridgewatch Angels as they walk together to honor the memory of their loved one. The Bridgewatch Angels are credited with making dozens of interventions each year. [26] [27] [28] [29]

Suicide rescue Edit

In addition to Golden Gate bridge patrol, law enforcement, and emergency medical personnel, there are Golden Gate Bridge ironworkers who volunteer their time to prevent suicides by talking to or wrestling down suicidal people. [30] One of the ironworkers, Ken Hopper, began working at the bridge in the mid-1980s and sees the volunteer rescue duty as "part of the job". Called "Cowboys of the Sky", they have the equipment and knowledge of the bridge, as well as the experience working at extreme heights, giving them the qualifications to go over the rail and assist those in need. While the experience of the volunteers minimize the danger of falling, there are still risks encountered. Ironworkers have reported knives being pulled on them, seeing loaded guns on would-be jumpers, and having been bitten. When a police psychologist is on scene, they will coach the volunteer rescuers by radio and the ironworkers are provided seminars on suicide prevention. As of 2001, Hopper reported having rescued 30 suicidal individuals and losing two. He was a first-hand witness to the Steven Page murder/suicide, where a father, who had just murdered his wife, threw his toddler-daughter off the bridge and then jumped off the bridge himself.

"Hopper's Hands" were created in part as a legacy of the ironworkers volunteering for suicide rescue duty. After Hopper spotted waterfront joggers touching the fence at the sidewalk dead-end near Fort Point before turning back, he asked the bridge's sign painter to create a sign with two hand print silhouettes on it. The signs are now at both ends of the bridge. [32]

Strong appeals for a suicide barrier, fence, or other preventive measures were raised again by a well-organized vocal minority of psychiatry professionals, suicide barrier consultants, and families of jumpers beginning in January 2005. These efforts were given momentum by two films dealing with the topic of suicide and the Golden Gate Bridge. On January 14, 2005 the San Francisco Chronicle published an open letter by writer–director Jenni Olson calling for a suicide barrier on the Golden Gate Bridge. [33] The letter was, in part, an excerpt from the script of her film The Joy of Life, which world-premiered the following week, on January 20, 2005, at the Sundance Film Festival. The day before, on January 19, 2005, the Kronika broke the news that filmmaker Eric Steel had been shooting suicide leaps from the bridge during 2004 for his film Most, which would be released in 2006. A week later, The Joy of Life world-premiered at the Sundance Film Festival and video copies of the film were circulated to members of the Bridge District board of directors with the help of the Psychiatric Foundation of Northern California.

In the fall of 2005 the San Francisco Chronicle published a seven-part series of articles, titled "Lethal Beauty", focusing on the problem of suicide and the Golden Gate Bridge and emphasizing that a solution was not just possible, but even desirable. [6]

California Highway patrolman Kevin Briggs is credited with saving hundreds of lives of would-be jumpers by talking to them before they can take the plunge. [34] The CHP estimates that with the help of cameras and the volunteers, at least 80–90% of people intending to jump are prevented from doing so. [35]

Suicide barrier Edit

On October 10, 2008, the Golden Gate Bridge and Transportation District Board of Directors voted 15 to 1 for the preferred option of installing a plastic-covered stainless steel net below the bridge as a suicide deterrent. [36] The netting barrier was initially estimated to cost $40–50 million to complete. [37] [38] [39] On July 28, 2010, the board received $5 million from the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) towards conducting a final design study of the barrier. [40] However, a funding source for the overall project still had not been identified, and there was concern that this lack of funding could delay the net's deployment. [41]

The lack of funding for the project continued to delay the schedule of completion. [42] In 2012, President Barack Obama enacted the Transportation Re-authorization Bill permitting federal funding towards transportation infrastructure projects. Initially, the bill did not divert funding automatically. However, advocates of the barrier, such as 'Bridge Rail Foundation', were eventually successful in securing support for the project in 2014. [43] In March 2014, New York Times reported that it is expected that the directors of the Bridge District will vote to change its policy and allow the use of toll money to supplement governmental funds for a suicide barrier. [12]

The proposed suicide barrier will consist of stainless steel netting stretching 20 feet (6.1 m) out on either side of the bridge, and 20 feet below the bridge. Funding for building this barrier was unanimously approved by the Golden Gate Bridge Board of Directors on June 27, 2014. The MTC approved to contribute $27 million of the $76-million overall cost for the project, and federal, state, and local authorities will likewise contribute to the project. [44] [45] The design was finalized in December 2014 however the project was delayed due to concerns from the National Park Service about storing construction materials at the site for the estimated 3 years it will take to complete the work. [46]

Fabrication of the stainless-steel netting and structural pieces began offsite in May 2017 after years of debate and installation of the netting on-site began in August 2018. The netting was scheduled to be complete in 2021 at a projected cost of $211 million. [47] [48] [49] In 2019, lead contractor AECOM reported a delay until 2023. District officials attributed the delay to the original lead contractor, Shimmick Construction, having underbid the project, and to its 2017 acquisition by AECOM. [50]

Harold B. Wobber Edit

The first known intentional death from the Golden Gate Bridge occurred when the bridge was just a little over three months past its opening. In August 1937, 47-year-old World War I veteran Harold Wobber was employed as a bargeman and took a bus to the bridge. After he got off the bus, Wobber started down the pedestrian walkway of the 1.6-mile span. On the way, he started talking to a college professor from Connecticut, on vacation in the San Francisco area. During the stroll, Wobber took off his coat and vest, threw them to the man, and declared, "This is where I get off. I'm going to jump." The vacationing professor grabbed the man's belt, but Wobber was able to get free and jumped over the four-foot-high rail to his death in the San Francisco Bay. After his death, newspapers reported Wobber was "a victim of shell shock" who had been undergoing mental health treatment. [51] [52] [53] [54]

August and Marilyn DeMont Edit

Until 1993, the youngest death off the bridge was five-year-old Marilyn DeMont, in 1945. With the child standing on a girder just outside the bridge's railing, her father, 37-year-old elevator installation foreman August DeMont, commanded her to jump. August DeMont followed by diving "gracefully" after her. A simple note was found in the DeMont car stating, "I and my daughter have committed suicide." [55]

Charles S. Gallagher Sr. and Jr. Edit

In 1954, Charles S. Gallagher Sr. was director of the San Jose Merchants Association in San Jose, California. After returning from two weeks of vacation, he discovered the audit his company began before he left was ongoing. Gallagher told his co-workers he was leaving briefly to get coffee. Rather than doing so, he drove to the north side of the Golden Gate Bridge, parked, and jumped.

Four days later, Gallagher's 24-year-old son, Charles S. Gallagher Jr., drove the same sedan owned by his father to the same area and jumped from approximately the same location. A pre-med student at UCLA, Gallagher Jr. left a note that said, "I am sorry. . . . I want to keep dad company." [55]

Marc Salinger Edit

28-year-old Marc Salinger, oldest son of former Kennedy Administration press secretary Pierre Salinger, [56] jumped to his death from the bridge on February 9, 1977. While Salinger had known John F. Kennedy through his father's professional association with the president, he had also known him on a personal level. According to his family, Salinger, who had occasionally been Kennedy's golf caddy, never got over the president's assassination. After Salinger's mother had identified the body, the San Francisco Coroner's Office announced Salinger's death to the press. A resident of the San Francisco Bay Area at the time of his death, Salinger was buried in San Mateo County. [57]

Steven and Kellie Page Edit

On January 28, 1993, Steven Page murdered his wife Nancy and then threw his daughter Kellie off the Golden Gate Bridge, before jumping off the bridge himself. [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64]

Page worked as a buyer at Owaga-Mune Nursery in Fremont, California. [65] The Page family home was in Fremont, but Page maintained a separate apartment after he and his wife separated. At 10:00 am on January 28, Page drove to their Fremont house and murdered his wife with a 12 gauge shotgun. He then left a message for his mother-in-law to pick up his nine-year-old stepson from school. After arriving at the Page home, she discovered the body of her daughter. [62] [65] Page, after killing his wife, drove with their three-year-old daughter, Kellie, to the Golden Gate Bridge. [62] Highway patrol officers noticed Page walking along the bridge carrying a bundle and recognized it to be a small child. After being approached by the officers because of his unusual behavior, Page threw Kellie over the railing, then climbed over the railing himself and jumped off. [66] Following the incident, investigators were puzzled by Page's apparent lack of psychological indicators prior to the murder/suicide. [67]

U.S. Coast Guard spokesperson Shelly Freier stated the USCG had recovered the bodies of both father and daughter by the next day, January 29. [68] An apology letter addressed to Page's stepson, who was at school at the time of all three deaths, was found at the family home. In the letter Page apologized for what he had done, showing premeditation for both the murders of his wife and daughter as well as his suicide. [68]

Roy Raymond Edit

On August 26, 1993, Roy Raymond, the founder of Victoria's Secret, died after intentionally jumping off of the Golden Gate Bridge at the age of 46. Last seen walking toward the bridge, Raymond's body was shortly thereafter washed up on a shoreline in Marin County investigators concluded that he had committed suicide by jumping from the bridge. [69]

Paul Aladdin Alarab Edit

Originally surviving a fall from the Golden Gate in 1988, Paul Aladdin Alarab died on March 19, 2003, when he jumped from the bridge in protest of the United States' invasion of Iraq. Alarab, whose father was born in Iraq, was a 44-year-old real estate agent from Kensington, California, who climbed over a railing on the east side of the bridge, mid-span. Tying one end of a rope to the bridge and wrapping the other end of the rope around his arms, Alarab then demanded to talk to media. Law enforcement tried to talk him back over the railing while he read a statement he had written denouncing the war started earlier that day. After finishing the statement, he let go of the rope and fell 235 feet to the water. His body was recovered almost immediately, but Alarab did not survive the fall.

In 1988, however, he had survived a similar fall from the bridge that occurred while lowering himself into a garbage can that was hanging from a 60-foot rope off the bridge. At that time, he was protesting what he saw as mistreatment of the elderly and the handicapped. In the 1988 incident, he lost his grip on the rope and fell into San Francisco Bay, surviving with three broken ribs and both lungs collapsed. The first incident was considered an accident. Following the 1988 incident, Alarab told a reporter from the San Francisco Chronicle, "It seemed like the fall lasted forever. I was praying for God to give me another chance. I was also wondering about how I would hit, because that is what determines if you will live or die." While his friends, family, and co-workers did not believe his death was an intentional suicide, investigators came to a different conclusion based on his having let go of the rope. Retired UCSF professor of psychiatry Jerome Motto stated that Alarab might have been disturbed by the outbreak of the war and "that previously bearable pain suddenly became intolerable". [70]

Gene Sprague Edit

On May 11, 2004, Gene Sprague, [71] a native of San Mateo, California, committed suicide by jumping off the Golden Gate Bridge. His death is documented in the 2006 film Most. During the filming of Most, the crew noticed Sprague walking back and forth along the bridge for around 90 minutes, before stopping to lean over the railing. According to Eric Steel, the film's director, Sprague's behavior was normal enough to not attract the attention of the on-set suicide prevention teams. As seen in the end of the film, after watching the water for a minute or two, Sprague pulled himself over the railing, stood up and fell backwards into the San Francisco Bay.

Sean Moylan Edit

On June 5, 2014, at 4:22 pm, 27-year-old Sean Moylan of Novato, California, jumped from the Golden Gate Bridge, ending his life. The Coast Guard pulled Moylan's body out of the waters beneath the bridge. Moylan was the grandson of John Moylan, a longtime member of the Golden Gate District board of directors who campaigned for the installation of suicide barriers on the bridge. The elder Moylan was president of the board when, in 2008, a historic decision was made to build the barrier at a cost of $68 million. John Moylan referred to his grandson's death as "heartbreaking" however, he did not blame it on the lack of a barrier. Sean Moylan already had attempted suicide in February 2014 after a breakup with his girlfriend, Moylan walked in front of a truck in Oregon and was critically injured. [72]

Casey Joanna Brooks Edit

On January 29, 2008, 17-year-old Casey Brooks of Tiburon, jumped from the Golden Gate Bridge. [73] Because her body was never recovered, her friend had benches installed as a memorial. [74] Located on Strawberry Vista in Mill Valley amidst spectacular views, the original memorial had to be replaced due to a dispute with the nearby property owner being uncomfortable. [75] In March and April 2020, the benches were vandalized twice. [76] John Brooks has written a book, The Girl Behind the Door, on their experience and journey of losing Casey. [77]

Along with confirmed suicide deaths and suicide attempts at the bridge, there have been false suicides as well. The first documented case of "pseudocide" [ potreben citat ] at the Golden Gate Bridge was in 1948. 47-year-old Chris J. Christensen was a well-known local jeweler who had been recently elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Christensen's coat was found attached to a work box at the center span of the bridge with a note in the coat that read, "Loved Ones: My nerves are shot. Please forgive me. Chris." Believed to have jumped from the bridge, Christensen was declared dead and rumors abounded. Investigators concluded he was unable to cope with the pressures of being in public office. There were reports of Christensen having become friendly with a man described as "willowy . almost too good-looking to be considered handsome." While Christensen introduced the man to friends and colleagues as his nephew, it was learned the man was not a relative rather, he was a Navy sailor whom Christensen met in a Los Angeles bar. Over a year had passed when it was discovered Christensen was actually alive and selling Bibles in Houston, Texas. Found living in a low-rent rooming house and having lost 40 pounds, Christensen explained that campaign contributors who supported his election had asked him to "do things he couldn't do". Christensen saw himself as a failure and never returned to San Francisco. [55]

In 1985, 28-year-old Kenneth Baldwin jumped over and survived. Rescued by the US Coast Guard, he suffered a few broken ribs and a bruised lung.

On September 24, 2000, Kevin Hines was 19 years old, paranoid, and hallucinating when he jumped off the Golden Gate Bridge. Throwing himself headfirst over the bridge railing, he fell 220 feet into San Francisco Bay. During the fall, his body rotated so that when Hines hit the water he landed in a sitting position, taking the impact in his legs and up through his back. Three of his vertebrae were shattered, lacerating his lower internal organs. A United States Coast Guard vessel rescued him, and he was transported to a hospital in San Francisco where he received emergency surgery. Following further, experimental surgery, any physical evidence of his experience is almost non-existent, and Hines has full mobility. Regarding his thoughts after the jump, Hines stated, "There was a millisecond of free fall. In that instant, I thought, what have I just done? I don't want to die. God, please save me." Following his suicide attempt, Hines received some notoriety as a survivor, appearing in a documentary film, Most (2006) and being interviewed on CNN by Larry King. Additionally, he wrote a book about his experience before and after his suicide attempt, Cracked, Not Broken, and became a mental health advocate as well as a proponent for a bridge suicide barrier or net to prevent such incidents. [78]

On March 10, 2011, 17-year-old Luhe "Otter" Vilagomez from Windsor High School in Windsor, California, survived a jump from the bridge, breaking his coccyx and puncturing one lung, though he said his attempt was for "fun" and not suicide. The teen was helped to shore by Frederic Lecouturier, 55, who was surfing under the bridge when he saw Vilagomez jump. [79] [80] The California Highway Patrol recommended the San Francisco District Attorney's Office charge the student with misdemeanor trespassing (a charge that entails climbing any rail, cable, suspender rope, tower or superstructure not intended for public use), punishable by up to a year in the county jail and/or a fine up to $10,000, and that the teenager undergo a medical/psychiatric evaluation by medical professionals. [81] [82]

Most Uredi

Most is a 2006 British–American documentary film by Eric Steel, which spans 365 days of filming at the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge in 2004. The film captured a number of suicides, and featured interviews with family and friends of some of the identified people who had thrown themselves from the bridge that year.

The film was inspired by Tad Friend's 2003 article titled "Jumpers", written for New Yorker revija. [83] The film crew shot almost 10,000 hours of footage, recording 23 of the known 24 suicides off the bridge in 2004. [84] [85]

In his article for New Yorker, Friend wrote, "Survivors often regret their decision in midair, if not before". This observation is supported by survivor Ken Baldwin, who explained, "I instantly realized that everything in my life that I'd thought was unfixable was totally fixable—except for having just jumped." [86]

The 2006 release of Most exerted additional pressure on the Bridge District and created continued public awareness. The film also documented interviews with surviving family members of those who jumped, with witnesses, and with a survivor.

The Joy of Life Uredi

The Joy of Life, released in 2005, is an American documentary film that recounts the chronological history of suicide at the Golden Gate Bridge. The film discusses key design changes made to the bridge by architect Irving Morrow, notably the lowering of the pedestrian railing. It also explores the public discussions of the problem of suicide prevention over the decades, with a focus on local news coverage. [87]


Vic Damone – “Christmas In San Francisco”

Today, Christmas in San Francisco involves a gigantic Christmas tree in Union Square, roasted chestnuts along the sidewalks, and music playing in the decorated stores, and the city has its own holiday anthem in the aptyl titled “Christmas in San Francisco.” It describes Christmas caroling, beautiful lights, gifts in everyone’s hands, and people “eating lychees and barbecued boar” in Chinatown. And, even if Christmas nowadays is not exactly like Damone describes it, it is still just as magical.


Poglej si posnetek: Суперсооружения: Мост Золотые ворота National Geographic (Januar 2022).