Podcasti zgodovine

Dzibilchaltun

Dzibilchaltun

Dzibilchaltun v Yucatanu v Mehiki je eno najzgodnejših v nizu naselij Majev vzdolž poti Puuc - pot najdišč Majev v regiji Puuc v Yukatanu.

Zgodovina Dzibilchaltuna

Prav tako ostaja mestna država z najdaljšo neprekinjeno uporabo v svetu Majev: Dzibilchaltun se je uporabljal kot upravna in obredna prestolnica od približno 1500 pr.n.št. do španskega osvajanja 16. stoletja. Na svoji višini naj bi pokrival 15 kvadratnih kilometrov in imel več kot 8400 struktur.

Dzibilchaltun - ki je preveden kot "mesto kamnitega pisanja" - ni tako velik kot njegov kolega, Uxmal, niti so ga izkopali in prenovili tako obsežno, vendar kljub temu vsebuje nekaj zanimivih stavb. Pravzaprav je bil Dzibilchaltun v času svojega razcveta ogromen in se je po velikosti celo pomeril z Uxmalom, čeprav je zdaj ostalo relativno malo.

Eno glavnih mest v Dzibilchaltunu je tempelj sedmih punčk (Templo de las Siete Muñecas), ki je dobil ime po sedmih grotesknih punčkah, ki so jih odkrili med izkopavanji. Ta sveta stavba je znana tudi kot tempelj sonca, saj je odlično namenjena za ogled pomladnega in jesenskega enakonočja: tempeljska vrata svetijo in sčasoma se zdi, da zasvetijo, ko sonce vzhaja za njimi - to je skoraj zagotovo namerno doseglo oblikovanje in prikazuje napredno naravo razumevanja astronomije Majev.

Dzibilchaltun danes

Manjša od mnogih drugih mest na Yucatanu, ne pričakujte ruševin v slogu Chichen Itza. Dzibilchaltun ostaja pomembno mesto Maya in potrebuje nekaj ur za popolno raziskovanje.

Obstaja tudi majhen muzej Museo del Pueblo Maya, ki vsebuje predšpanske in zgodnje kolonialne artefakte.

Nahrbtniki so na mestu prepovedani, zato jih ustrezno načrtujte. Cenote Xlacah je na ozemlju mesta in po vročini raziskovanja Yukatana boste pozdravili osvežujoč potop, zato prinesite kopalke. 44 m globoko je bil bazen nekoč uporabljen kot slovesno mesto, potapljači pa so tu odkrili približno 30.000 predmetov - mnogi od teh danes prebivajo v muzeju.

Priti do Dzibilchaltuna

Dzibilchaltun je približno 20 km severno od Meride in omogoča enostaven enodnevni izlet. Tja se odpravite s kolektivom ali taksijem.


Majevske ruševine Dzibilchaltun


Ruševina Dzibilchaltun je bila glavno mesto zgodnjih Majev. Arheologi ocenjujejo, da je bilo v njegovi zgodovini kar 200.000 prebivalcev in 8.400 stavb. Mesto so še vedno naseljevali Maji, ko so prišli Španci v 1500. letih in tukaj so odkrili artefakte iz obdobja 700-800 n.

Dzibilchaltun se prevaja kot "kraj, kjer piše na kamnu", sodobno ime Majev, ki tako pogosto nima nobene zveze s tem, kar so mu rekli v času svojega razcveta - ima eno najdaljših zgodovin neprekinjene okupacije katerega koli majevskega mesta, ki se raztezajo več kot 2000 let od okoli 500 pred našim štetjem do malo pred osvajanjem.


Dzibilchaltun - Zgodovina

tempelj sedmih punčk plaza google earth

Zahodni pogled iz templja sedmih lutk gunnar wolf

španska kapela Pavel Vorobiev

DZIBILCHALTUN-Yucatan, Mehika

OPIS

Dzibilchaltun je bil prvotno znan kot Ch'iy Chan Ti'Ho. To znano mesto je znano po pojavu sonca, ki sije na vratih templja sedmih punčk na spomladansko enakonočje. Ruševine so kratke vožnje severno od Meride tik ob avtocesti 261 na odcepu za Chablekal. Spletna stran je nekoč pokrivala približno 12 kvadratnih kilometrov/19 kvadratnih kilometrov, vendar je sedanje območje jedra veliko manjše in enostavno obiskano.

Ocenjuje se, da je na tem območju in okolici živelo več kot 40.000 ljudi. Poleg templja sedmih punčk, ki se nahaja na vzhodnem koncu dolge vreče (dvignjen kamniti nasip), so tri glavne tržnice. Poleg arheološkega območja je tudi nacionalni ekološki park.

Na tem mestu je lep muzej s številnimi kamnitimi spomeniki in kipi, ki jih najdemo na tem mestu in v okolici, skupaj s popolno zgodovino Yukatana s poudarkom na vojni kast 1847-1901. Vredno ogleda. Obstaja tudi majhna restavracija.

URE: 9.00 do 16.00
VSTOPNINA: 4,25 USD/80 pesov, 2,50 USD za video kamero. Morda so dodatne pristojbine.
VODNIKI: Da, povprašajte se v centru za obiskovalce o trenutnih cenah
STORITVE: Sanitarije, restavracija, center za obiskovalce
MUZEJ NA MESTU: Da, in zelo priporočljivo
NASTANITVE: Veliko hotelov v bližnji Meridi
GPS: 21d 05 '20 "N, 89d 35' 31" W
MISC:

Zgodovina in raziskovanje
Dzibilchaltun je eno najstarejših najdišč na polotoku Yucatan, ki sega v leto 500 pred našim štetjem, in je bilo še vedno naseljeno v času španskega osvajanja, zaradi česar je eno najdaljših naseljenih mest na svetu Majev. Menijo, da je bilo mesto ustanovljeno za izkoriščanje stanovanj morske soli, ki jih najdemo ob bližnji obali. Sol je bila glavna trgovska dobrina Majev, stanovanja pa se še danes komercialno obdelujejo. Večina stavb je iz pozne klasike do obdobja klasične terminalske dobe (600–1150 AD).

Prva organizirana izkopavanja najdišča sta leta 1956 izvedla National Geographic Society in Srednjeameriški raziskovalni inštitut Univerze Tulane, čeprav so o tem mestu poročali že prej. Druge preiskave so bile izvedene v šestdesetih in osemdesetih letih 20. stoletja. Nedavno so potekala obnovitvena dela, zlasti na jugozahodnem in zahodnem trgu pod vodstvom Rubena Maldonada iz INAH.

KONSTRUKCIJE
Glavna zgradba tukaj je znana kot tempelj sedmih punčk, poimenovana po daritvi v stavbi. To je zgodnja zgradba, ki je bila zajeta pozneje. Zaradi slabega stanja poznejše stavbe je bila večina odstranjena, da bi razkrila dobro ohranjen tempelj, ki so ga našli pod njim. Gre za kvadratno strukturo, usmerjeno na kardinalne točke z vstopnimi odprtinami na vseh štirih straneh, okni na vzhodni in zahodni strani. V notranjosti je še ena kvadratna podporna komora. Zgrajena je na dvostopenjski ploščadi. Zunanjost je nekoč krasil friz iz štukaturnih mask in drugih elementov.

Stavba je znana po sončnem vzhodu, ki sije med vzhodno/zahodnimi odprtinami templja med spomladanskim enakonočjem. To je bil pomemben kmetijski in koledarski marker za Maje. Tempelj je osrednja zgradba lastnega trga in se nahaja na vzhodnem koncu Sacbe 1. Sama vreča teče vzhod/zahod in je dolga 0,4 milje/0,64 km od glavne trga Plaza 1.

Zahodna stran templja je sestavljena iz treh podobnih konstrukcij in postavljenih na osi sever/jug, vsaka z dvojnimi hodniki in s tremi vhodi. Na severu je majhna enojna hodniška struktura. Jugovzhodno od templja je še ena majhna zgradba z dvojnim hodnikom. Vzhodno od templja je enosobna zgradba s tremi vhodi. Pod tlemi zahodnih struktur so našli številne daritve, ki vsebujejo bodice, školjke, obsidijan in predmete iz zelenega kamna. Stavbe segajo okoli leta 800 pred našim štetjem. Ob obiskih v vročih poletnih dneh se podajte na drugo pot skozi okoliški subtropski nizki gozd.

Na zahodu na Sacbe 1 proti Main Plaza je Struktura 12, postavljena sredi vrečke. Obrabljena, navadna stela je postavljena na ploščad s kratkimi stopnicami na vseh 4 straneh. Zdi se, da v Dzibilchaltunu potrebni rokodelci za izrezovanje kamnitih stel niso bili vedno na voljo. Kar odpira zanimivo vprašanje. Kako in kje so bili obrtniki usposobljeni in zaposleni? Ali so bili mobilni in so prehajali od mesta do mesta in ponujali svoje storitve? Ali je obiskovani mojster opravil pouk na kraju samem? Gradnja teh struktur in spomenikov je bila velika naloga. Vsekakor je verjetno, da je bila večina navadnih stel tukaj nekoč prekritih s premazom štukature in nato vpisanih s potrebnimi podatki. Kljub temu je na tem mestu najdenih nekaj izrezljanih stel, ki med drugimi zgodovinskimi podatki vsebujejo datum 830 n.

Na južni strani vrečke, bolj zahodno, sta dve stanovanjski zgradbi. Večinoma niso obnovljeni, vendar so vredni ogleda.

Tik pred prihodom na Main Plaza so tri stele na kvadratnih ploščadih na južni strani vreče. To območje je znano kot Stelae Plaza. Postavljeni so zelo premišljeno, približno 33 metrov narazen na osi sever/jug. Spet so te stele obrabljene in navadne. Zanimivo bi bilo vedeti, kakšno zgodovino so nekoč zapisali.

Zelo velik Main Plaza meri 437 čevljev/133 metrov x 343 čevljev/105 metrov. Njegova površina je bila nekoč popolnoma prekrita s plastjo bele štukature. Na severovzhodu je zasidrana s strukturo 36. To je štiristopenjska piramida s centralnim stopniščem in se dviga na višino približno 10 čevljev. V središču trga je kapelica na prostem iz 16. stoletja, običajna praksa prvih Špancev. Zanimiva in morda edinstvena značilnost je, da imajo vse strukture na glavni plaži, razen strukture 36, plaza obrnjena po stopnicah, ki potekajo po celotni dolžini strukture.

Struktura 44 je čudovita zgradba, dolga 129 metrov, na južni strani trga z neprekinjenim stopniščem po vsej dolžini. Ima platformo, ki se dviga 14 stopnic na vrh, približno 15 čevljev/5 metrov. Zelo impresivno! Ta struktura je bila domnevno državljanske/upravne narave z enakim dostopom do dveh vzporednih hodnikov, ki potekata po dolžini vrha ploščadi. Na hodnike se odpira 35 vhodov. Na mestu Edzna ima skoraj identičnega dvojčka, imenovanega Nohoch Na.

Vzhodna stran trga je sestavljena iz treh struktur. Struktura 42 je najbolj opazna, postavljena na dolgi, dvignjeni ploščadi s teraso proti zahodu. Na terasi so številne večstanovanjske zgradbe. Tu so odkrili grob vladarja iz 9. stoletja, Kalom Uk'uw Chan Chac.

Naslednja zgradba, Struktura 41, je dvignjena ploščad, visoka približno 8 čevljev/2,5 metra. Široko stopnišče vodi do ravne površine, ki ima ostanke osrednje zidane strukture. Končna struktura je preprosta, nizka, kvadratna ploščad, ki je postavljena pred strukturo 41.

Na zahodni strani Plaze 1 je cenote (korita z naravno vodo napolnjena), Xlacah Cenote, ki je bil vir pitne vode za to razmeroma suho območje. Iz njegovih voda so našli številne keramične predmete, kar kaže na njen sveti pomen. Danes se uporablja kot plavalna luknja.

Le severno od cenota in njegovega naslona je Struktura 45 južno. Ta struktura je kvadratna, okrnjena piramida z ostanki templja z dvojno komoro na vrhu. Struktura 45 sever je takoj severno od strukture 45 jug. Obe strukturi imata široka stopnišča, obrnjena proti plazu. Struktura 45 North je manjša struktura, bolj pravokotna, ki vsebuje številne komore. Dodatno stopnišče se nahaja na zahodni strani.

Severozahodni kotiček trga je zasidran s konstrukcijo 37. To je dvignjena pravokotna ploščad, dolga približno 102 čevljev/31 metrov x 50 čevljev/15,25 metra v dolžino. Zgornji nivo te zgradbe je raven in ne vsebuje znakov zidanih sten.

Za strukturo 37 je skupina štirih struktur, skupaj znanih kot Struktura 38. Nastanejo okoli majhnega trga z vzhodno strukturo, ki je lepo obnovljen enosobni tempelj. Tempelj je bil tako kot tempelj sedmih punčk izpostavljen izpod poznejše uničene strukture.

Sacbe, Sacbe 2, vodi zahodno od Main Plaza med strukturama 45 in 37. Struktura 40 se nahaja na kratki razdalji, zgrajena na vreči. To je dvignjena dvostopenjska ploščad, visoka približno 6 čevljev/2,5 metra in ima vzhodno stopnišče. Je v večinoma zaraščenem stanju.

Bolj zahodno po Sacbe 2 vodi do Stoječega templja. To je večkomorna zgradba, ki prikazuje ostanke dvojnega obokanega oboka. Vreča je zdaj popolnoma zaraščena, kar otežuje dostop do te strukture.

Kratka vrečka se odcepi od Sacbe 2 in teče za strukturo 45 in cenote. Konča se pri Strukturi 55, ki je uradni vhod v South Plaza. Struktura 55 je nizka terasa/ploščad s stopnišči na severni in južni strani. Osrednji del konstrukcije vključuje več komor.

South Plaza, Plaza 2, je bila v začetku 2000 -ih nekaj obnovljena. Meri 143 metrov x 269 čevljev/82 metrov. Najpomembnejša zgradba tukaj je Struktura 46, zgradba v slogu akropole s številnimi sobami in terasami, postavljenimi na nivojih. Široko stopnišče vodi navzdol na trg. To območje je prehitela vegetacija in je trenutno zaprto za javnost.

Vzhodno od South Plaza je lepo obnovljeno igrišče za žoge. Zahodna stran igrišča za žogo je bila sprva del South Plaza. Bolj proti zahodu, Sacbe 6 vodi do Plaza 3, ki je trenutno zaprta za obiskovalce. Ta trg ima kot glavno zgradbo visoko piramido, strukturo 89.

Po mestu so razpršene še druge manjše strukture in platforme. Zelo lep način preživeti cel dan.


Ruševine Dzibilchaltun

Dzibilchaltun pomeni & quotplace pisanja v kamnu & quot; in je največje mesto Majev, odkrito z več kot 200.000 prebivalci na svojem vrhuncu. Mesto obsega 16 kvadratnih kilometrov in ima več kot 8000 struktur. Ki je bil tudi neprekinjeno dalj časa okupiran, prvi je bil zgrajen leta 500 našega štetja in je imel v času osvajanja še ljudi. Mesto odraža razvoj kulture Maya, znanosti in gradbenih tehnik. Mesto je bilo po osvajanju opuščeno.

Dzibilchaltun ponuja številne zanimivosti. Najbolj znan je znameniti tempelj punčk. Vsako leto med jesenskim enakonočjem in pomladjo sonce vzhaja točno skozi vrata in skozi zadnja okna. Druga pomembna zgradba je velik osrednji trg, ki vključuje največje palače Majev.

Na primer, ena od sob je dolga 130 metrov in ima 35 vrat. Lahko obiščete kapelo, ki so jo zgradili Španci med osvajanjem Yucatan. Malo naprej boste našli tempelj in velik Xlacah cenote, kjer se lahko kopate, da se ohladite. Dzibilchaltun ima tudi pomemben muzej z več španskimi in majevskimi artefakti, od lončarstva do slik, španskih oklepov in orožja, različnih majevskih izrezljanih prekladov in izklesanih kamnov v odličnem stanju.

Tempelj sedmih punčk je na arheološkem najdišču Dzibilchaltún Maya, 16 km. severno od Merida. Dzibilchaltún pomeni "kraj, kjer piše na ploskem kamnu", in se nanaša na številne spominske kamne, ki jih najdemo na tem mestu. The cenote Xlacah, kar pomeni & quotold town, & quot je eno redkih cenote Yucatana na Zemlji. Je eden največjih in najglobljih, sega 43 metrov globoko. V cenotu najdemo številne arheološke ostanke. Dzibilchaltún je tudi edinstven nacionalni ekološki park z več sto vrstami divjih živali.

In muzej Maya Village, ki se nahaja na tem mestu, ne smete zamuditi. Ena najpomembnejših stvari v muzeju je tipična majevska hiša in pot edinstvenih dreves na območju, ki vodi do templjev. Lahko raziskujete okoli cest in to vam bo dalo edinstveno priložnost za uživanje v naravi, rastlinstvu in živalstvu Polotok Yucatan.

Čez dan lahko raziskujete arheološko najdišče, muzej in okoli cenote. Spletno mesto ponuja več storitev Dzibilchaltún za obiskovalce bolj udobno: restavracijo, obrtne predmete v trgovini s spominki, informacijsko stojnico, zdravstvene storitve, telefon, prostore za invalide, sanitarije in parkirišče.

Nahaja se le 15 minut severno Merida City, po avtocesti do Progreso.


Dzibilchaltúnovih sedem punčk

Zaradi česar je Dzibilchaltún - eno najstarejših naselij severozahodne nižinske nižine Yucátan v Mehiki - tako zmedlo sedem surovo izdelanih figuric, najdenih zakopanih pod oltarjem v tempelj sedmih punčkov. Na svojem vrhuncu je bila Dzibilchaltún, kar pomeni "tam, kjer piše na ploščatih kamnih", velika in zapletena skupnost, "ki se je ukvarjala z izkoriščanjem bližnjih obalnih virov, zlasti soli, in trgovino na dolge razdalje po celini in morju." Imela je več kot »8.000 stavb, razpršenih na dvajsetih kvadratnih miljah, od katerih je večina eno ali dvosobnih ploščadi, ki so nekoč podpirale stanovanja iz stebrov in slamnikov. Njegovo prebivalstvo je takrat morda doseglo 20.000 duš, to je bilo največje mesto na polotoku «(Kurjack, 1979 v Andrewsu, 1980).

Nahaja se 7,5 milj od današnje Méride in sedem kilometrov od obale, najstarejši zabeleženi trajni poselitev Dzibilchaltúna ​​pa iz zgodnjega formativnega obdobjaNabanchè faza.1, 900 pr. Nenehno je bila zasedena od sredine do poznega predklasičnega obdobja 500-250 pr. Tempelj sedmih punčk, najvzhodnejša velika zgradba v urbanem območju, kjer so bile najdene figurice ali punčke. Arheologi tempelj imenujejo Struktura.1-pod (Str.1-pod). Svoje duhovne moči deli z močmi svojega najbolj zahodnega kolega, templja, znanega kot Struktura.66 (Str.66).

Program preiskave in obnove v Dzibilchaltúnu je leta 1956 sprožil E. Wyllys Andrews IV s sponzorstvom National Geographic Society in Srednjeameriškega raziskovalnega inštituta na Univerzi Tulane. Arheološka ekipa je ugotovila, da je znanih 7000 ton zrušenega rublja Struktura.1 (Str.1) nepopravljivo poškodovana in da jo je treba odstraniti, tako da je bilo mogoče vrniti Str.1sub, ki je bila pod njo. Str.1-sub je bil zgrajen na podlagi še starejšega svetišča, ki ni bilo podobno kot na drugih lokacijah Majev v Yucatánu. Glavne zgradbe in templji starodavnega mesta so bili pobarvani z različnimi svetlimi barvami, med katerimi je prevladovala rdeča. Str.1-sub pa je bil pobarvan v belo, tako tudi sacbe.1 je z belim apnencem pokril »belo cesto« ali dvignjeno stezo, ki se je končala na terasi pred templjem. Tradicionalno je bil v urbanem kontekstu vzhodno-zahodni nasip, prekrit z belo štukaturo, povezan s potjo sonca. Tempelj sedmih punčk je bil zgrajen na takšni usmeritvi. Omeniti velja, da so arheologi tempelj poimenovali »tempelj lutk«, medtem ko je bilo po vsej verjetnosti njegovo staro ime »tempelj sonca«.

Str.1-sub se nahaja na najbolj vzhodni strani Dziblichaltúna, pol milje od osrednjega trga. Tempelj ima štiri okna, nenavadna za takratne templje Majev, in dve trapezni vrati na vzhodni in zahodni steni. Na severni in južni steni sta dve enaki vrati, vendar brez oken. Pomen igre svetlobe in senc, ki se je odvijala 21. marca in 20. ali 23. septembra, sta bila močna kazalca sončnega toka. Prvi datum označuje začetek sezone setve, drugi pa obiranje. Takrat je bog sonca vodil rituale sejanja duhovnikov-šamanov v templju. Njegova glavna vrata in štiri okna na vzhodni in zahodni strani ter brez oken na nasprotnih straneh poudarjajo sveto funkcijo templja.

V agrarnem gospodarstvu je funkcija Str.1-sub omogočala duhovnikom-šamanom, da opazujejo in ugotavljajo ciklični vzhod in zahod sonca, večni čas kmetijstva. Spremljanje neomajnega ponavljanja ciklov nebeških teles je ritualno povezano s Str.1-sub kot sončni ogenj-moški-sončni vzhod in njegov nasprotni Str.66 kot sončni zahod luna-voda-ženska. Razlogi, zakaj naj bi duhovniki-šamani ob določenih urah opazovali cikle nebeških teles, so bili, ker so bili bogovi in ​​božanstva "ustvarjeni na pamet", so se tako kot ljudje odzvali na zanemarjanje, prezir in jezo. Ljubezni od njih niso pričakovali, saj je bilo treba plačati s krvjo in solzami.

Rituali v starodavnih skupnostih so sledili agrarnim ciklom pod okriljem njihovih božanstev. Za te posrednike so bila zgrajena prva svetišča med celotnim svetom (narava) in človeštvom (kultura), ker kultura sama po sebi ni mogla nadzorovati narave. Duhovni šamani so morali zagotoviti natančnost sonca (K’inich Ahau, gospodar s soncem), ki se ni nikoli znova pojavil na istem mestu, dan za dnem, solsticij po solsticiju, enakonočje po enakonočju. Šamanom duhovnikom so pri njihovih nalogah pomagali rituali prošnje in priklica, med katerimi so nagovarjali božanstva rastlinskega sveta in mogočnega boga dežja.

Solsticijsko in ekvinoksialno gibanje so pozorno opazovali, vendar je bil pomemben tudi zenitni dogodek sonca, to je, ko sonce doseže opazovalčev zenit, 90 ° nad obzorjem, kar se zgodi le med tropom Raka in tropom Kozoroga. Contreras ponuja zanimivo hipotezo za spremljanje te epizode. »Visok strop notranje sobe Str.1-sub tvori stolp, ki štrli nad streho templja. Strop str.1-sub stolpa je bil morda narejen iz lažjega materiala, ki omogoča začasno odstranitev, da bi sončni žarki v svojem zenitu osvetlili tla osrednje komore spodaj «(Jobbova in sod., 2018)) . Str.1-sub stolp se je podrl, ko so leta 1959 odstranili naplavine Str.1, vendar njegova obnova kaže majhna vrata na južni strani za dostop do strehe. Na zemljepisni širini Dzibilchaltúna ​​je sončni zenit ob spomladanskem solsticiju tradicionalno povezan z začetkom sadilnega cikla in deževno sezono.

Spremljanje ponavljanja naravnih dogodkov je bilo povezano z zgoraj omenjenimi "miselnimi" božanstvi, gospodarji letnih časov in preživetjem ljudi. Narava slovesnosti, ki so jih vodili duhovniki-šamani pod okriljem gospodarjev kraljestva, je bila posvečena vsemogočnemu bogu dežja Cha'aku, ki je bil drugi v panteonu, K'inich Ahau, bogu sonca. Je bil Sončev tempelj alegorično zasnovan kot "sidro" sonca s obredi in rituali, ki so tradicionalno povezani s sejanjem zemlje? Najverjetneje.

In tako je bilo sedem lutk, ki so jih duhovniki-šamani obredno "posadili" po kanalu globokem tri metre, vkopanih v tla na sredini templja. Upodobitev Bates Littlehales (1959, Andrews, 1980) prikazuje upodobitev slovesnosti sedmih punčk, ki je potekala v dekadentnem obdobju Chechem Phase (1200-1500). Podnebni rekord za Yucatán kaže, da je ta slovesnost potekala v časovnem okviru ponavljajočih se suš.

Kaj so pričakovali od ritualov, povezanih s sedmimi grobo izdelanimi figuricami? Ne vemo in morda nikoli ne bomo vedeli. Arheologi so figurice opisali kot telesne deformacije. Andrews pripomni: "Nihče od nas še nikoli ni videl česa podobnega in#8230 lahko le ugibamo o njihovem pomenu. Morda so ti mali idoli poosebljali formule duhovnikov Majev za zdravljenje bolezni «(1980). Omeniti velja dejstvo, da jih njihovo število sedem postavlja v središče kulturnega duhovnega sveta, na stičišču štirih kardinalnih smeri, skupaj z zenitom, nadirjem in položajem figuric, za katere velja, da so središče vesolja skupnosti. Šest samic in ena moška figurica prikazuje prevelike genitalije (samček podpira nesorazmerno pokončen člen). Simbolizirajo reproduktivne moči, ki jih razprši sonce, gospodar narave, obred, ki ga najdemo v mnogih starodavnih kulturah.

Razlika med spoloma pa je zmedena in vodi k vprašanju: zakaj šest samic in en samček? Zakaj ne štiri in tri ali druga mešanica? Ker znanstvenikov ni zadovoljivega odgovora, je bil naslednji korak vprašati spoštovane lokalne šamane (h'men), če bi imeli kakšno mnenje o razliki med spoloma. Eden je opozoril, da bi "en samček in več samic v starosti razmnoževanja zagotovili preživetje skupine, medtem ko bi ena samica med poljubnim številom samcev upravičila njegovo izumrtje" (2020). Strogo opazovanje, ki bi lahko temeljilo na preživetju davno izgubljene preteklosti naše vrste.

Figurice niso drugačne od tistih, ki so jih izdelali otroci, vendar niso "punčke". Andrews ugotavlja, da "cevasti jašek, na dnu katerega so bili pokopani," psi-kanal ", kot ga imenujemo, ni bil zapečaten, ampak je ostal odprt, domnevamo, da tem duhovom groba omogoča, da sporočijo svoje skrivnostne moči človeškemu svetu zgoraj «(1959: 107-108). Figurice, ki so bile postavljene v osrčje templja, so bile morda varuhi portala »onostranstva«, kraja, kjer se nad smrtjo dviga večno življenje.

Rituali razprševanja so sovpadali s podnebnimi obremenitvami v obdobjih manjšega dežja ali suše. Ali obstaja povezava med temi starodavnimi rituali in figuricami? Verjetno zato, ker ni nobenega drugega razloga, da bi duhovniki-šamani dobesedno "posadili" te deformirane surovo izdelane figurice pod tla templja. Njihova povezava z naravo je simbolično povezana s koreninami rastlin, ki so sinonim za korenine življenja, saj figurice niso bile nikoli vidne. Poleg tega so kmetje v poznih 19. stoletjih v delih Amerike še vedno izvajali razprševanje človeških semen. Veljalo je, da občasno potrjuje splošno pravo "krvne pravice" za kmetijo, podedovano od prednikov, v nasprotju s "pravico do zemlje", ki so jo zahtevali napadalci.

Arheološki podatki, objavljeni v Science (2018), kažejo ponavljajoče se faze suše v paleoklimatskih zapisih iz sedimentov v jezeru Chinchancanab na polotoku Yucatán. V obdobju klasične Maye (600–900) se je „letni dež zmanjšal med 41% in 54%, z intervali do 70% zmanjšanja padavin v času največje suše“ (Evans et al, 362: 498-501). Poleg tega sta Metcalf in Davis z Inštituta za javno politiko Science & amp (SPPI, 2012) poročala, da so "suhe razmere, verjetno najsušnejše v holocenu, zabeležene v obdobju 700-1200" (2007). Katastrofalne naravne dogodke in zlasti suše so pripisali dejanjem zlonamernih božanstev, ki so kaznovali člane duhovništva in plemstvo, ki so bili zaradi pomanjkanja predanosti včasih zrušeni kot neuspešni agenti. »Rituali sajenja in vabljenja dežja so zelo pogost način, na katerem so se pretekle in sedanje človeške skupnosti soočale s tveganjem suše v različnih okoljih po vsem svetu« (Jobbova et al, 2018).

Tako Merida kot Dzibilchaltún se nahajata v kraterju Chicxulub, ki je nastal zaradi udarca asteroida, ki je udaril v zemljo v časovnem okviru krede-paleogena (K-Pg) (66MYA) in povzročil izumrtje megafavne. Veriga cenotes ali vrtače, na tem delu polotoka je razvrščeno zunaj kroga udarnega območja 93 milj, znotraj pa je veliko manjše število. V starih agrarnih družbah so vodna telesa, poleg tega, da so življenjsko pomembna, bila v središču njihovih verskih prepričanj in ritualov, ker so vodo razumeli kot bistvo vseh oblik življenja. Cenote Xlacah, ("staro mesto" v Yucatecu) je velika površinska vrtača v Dzibilchaltúnu. Zaradi pomanjkanja rek v severnem Yucatánu in zlasti v kraterju Chicxulub je bil bistven za življenje mesta in njegovih sosednjih skupnosti. Površina Xlacaha je večja (328 čevljev x 657 čevljev) kot sveti vodnjak v Chichén Itzá (164 in#215200 čevljev x 65 čevljev globoko).

Je tudi veliko globlje, na 144 čevljev. Njegove površinske vode pa so manj kot deset čevljev pod robom. Rituali, povezani z Xlacahom, so se dopolnjevali z rituali, ki so potekali v templju sedmih punčk in njegovem zahodnem delu, Str.66. The cenoteZdelo se je, da vode in z njimi povezana božanstva dopolnjujejo in uravnotežijo prevlado vsakega templja, sonca in lune. Konec koncev je bil Xlacah dom Cha'aka (God.B, Shellhass, 1904), močnega boga neviht, strele in življenjskega dežja.

V tem mitološkem kontekstu je Xlacah dojemal kot sidro stalnosti in vztrajnosti življenja, posrednika dihotomije narave in kulture, ki jo najdemo v prepričanjih starodavnih družb. Poleg Xlacaha je bilo v Dzibilchaltúnovem dvajsetih kvadratnih kilometrih poseljenem območju najdenih več kot »petinpetdeset pet umetnih vodnjakov« (Kurjack, 1974). Večinoma so bile ročno izkopane luknje, saj je vodna gladina le nekaj metrov pod površjem. Za razliko od majhnih vodnjakov pa se veliki cenoti napolnijo s kroženjem podzemne vode in jih očistijo šole drobnih rib in vodnih rastlin. Nahaja se na jugozahodnem vogalu Central Plaza in Xlacah v Cogginsovem poročilu predstavlja "… jug in dol ali vhod in izhod iz voda podzemlja" (1983: 49-23). Na dnu se tla Xlacaha močno nagnejo navzdol, nato pa se izravnajo in nadaljujejo do neznane razdalje v mrki črnini.

The cenote je bil v središču ritualov, kar potrjuje več kot 3.000 razbitih keramičnih in kozarcev za vodo, najdenih na njegovem dnu, skupaj z deli najmanj osmih človeških okostnjakov in živalskih kosti. Njegove vode so uporabljali tako za dnevne potrebe kot za obrede, ki niso vključevali žrtvovanja ljudi ali živali. Nekaj ​​najdenih človeških ostankov je bilo verjetno posledica ljudi, ki so se utopili med zbiranjem vode. Površinsko in pod zemljo cenotes so ogledala dveh svetov, ki jih razumemo kot dom Cha'aka, "pokrovitelja kmetijstva in enega najstarejših neprekinjeno čaščenih bogov stare Mezoamerice" (Miller+Taube, 1993). "Xlacah predstavlja središče Dzibilchaltúnovega agrarnega vesolja, njegovo osno os" (Lothrop, 1952, Tozzer, 1957). Močan bog dežja, strele in groma je bil gospodar življenja in strahu, kajti če bi dež propadel, bi življenje dalo žetev koruze (koruza-Zea mays subsp.) bi usahnila in povzročila lakoto, konflikt in smrt. Maji imajo globoko spoštovanje do koruze, saj so jih bogovi v svoji mitologiji ustvarili iz koruznega testa. Zato ni le njihova glavna in vsakodnevna oskrba, povezana je z samim obstojem, njihovo dušo.

Polmilijska cesta 1 poteka po ravni črti od osrednjega mestnega trga do templja sedmih punčk. Sto triinštirideset čevljev zahodno od Str.1sub so tri zgradbe z dvema sobama vsaka, zgrajena ob nasipu, ki je nadzorovala pristop do templja, skupaj z visokim obrambnim kamnitim zidom spredaj (zdaj ni več). Dostop je bil omejen skozi dva ozka prehoda, med osrednjim prostorom, kar je spomin na svetost templja. Štiristo petinštirideset čevljev zahodno od obrambnega zidu je stala Structure.12 (Str.12), štiristopenjska/šeststopenjska štirikotna ploščad z enajst metrov visokim apnenčastim monolitom, Stela. Pokrita je bila s štukaturo in poslikana s figurami panteona Majev, ki je zdaj izgubljen s časom. It is one of about thirty such monuments on the site and squarely faces the west side door of the Temple of the Seven Dolls. Its position relative to the temple, however, indicates that it was most probably used as a sighting device reciprocal to those of Str.1-sub for the observation of heavenly bodies. Of interest is the fact that, from an allegorical standpoint, structures were important but no more so than the play of light and shadows at dedicated times, such as at solstices and equinoxes. Following the path of the sun, the shadows had the same ritual value as that of structures or select natural landmarks.

Architecturally similar to Str.1-sub, Str.66 is radially symmetrical and is located at the western end of sacbe.2. However, it has not been restored, hence the limited information on both structure and remains. The similarity with the Seven Dolls complex, however, is striking and extends to Str.63 with a four-stairway/six-steps quadrangular platform and an eleven-foot limestone monolith, Stela.21, located 145 feet east of Str.66’s plaza, and built squarely on sacbe.2. Like Stela.3 to the east, Stela.21 was covered with stucco and painted with figures of the Maya pantheon, now lost to time. Andrews refers to Str.66 as “a mirror image of the Seven Dolls group” (1961), dedicated to the moon, counterpart to Str.1-sub, which was dedicated to the sun. Like the Temple of the Seven Dolls, it also had its access restricted by Str.64 and Str.65 which were built across its plaza.

The first sanctuaries were built for deities, mediators between an unmanageable nature and humankind, to persuade them through prayers and sacrifices to provide or facilitate food. From early human history, daily sustenance was an enduring concern. Dependence on the vagaries of the Yucatán’s seasons, climate, and the “mood of the gods,” kept communities in constant dread. Natural events such as, flood, drought, or insect plagues, brought constant fear, anxiety, and hunger. It is not surprising then that communities sought solace and help from their shamans, the needed go-betweens to commune with the overbearing deities of nature, to help people carry their unpredictable burdens.

Yucatec farmers (milperos) today tend their corn fields (milpas), with the utmost devotion. After planting in early spring, a ch’a-chaak ceremony takes place in the fields. The ceremony is related to the ancient god Cha’ak, and is integral to the seeding process before the first rains. It is conducted by h’men (a term that means “he who makes”) and their apprentices (idzat), together with the milpa owner, other farmers and community leaders. All pray to the ancient gods and their associated Christian deities on a field altar that answers to ancestral rituals for its set up, with gifts of plants and fruits from the land. Young boys crouch at each corner of the altar and mimic the croak of frogs calling for rain. As in the past, the h’men’s rain-beckoning rituals are a common way to pray for the blessed rain for fear that it may be withheld or delayed by malevolent forces.

For centuries, ancient gods and deities were the heartbeat of this great city and helped people cope with environmental stress such as drought, locusts, hurricanes, and other natural events. As is the case for all rituals and prayers, they helped people contend with an inherently unpredictable nature. The shadows of centuries inexorably blurred gods and deities, but below Str.1-sub altar, undisturbed by time and events, the Seven Dolls kept their relentless watch over Dzibilchaltún.

Photos/Drawings Captions and Credits:

  1. 12 and Stela.3 – ©georgefery.com
  2. Map of Dzibilchaltun – ©Andrews-MARI
  3. Temple of the Seven Dolls – ©georgefery.com
  4. The Dolls Cache.3 – ©Andrews-MARI
  5. The Seven Dolls – ©Andrews-MARI
  6. Dolls Burial, Reenactment – ©Andrews-MARI
  7. Cenote Xlacah – ©georgefery.com
  8. The Seven Dolls Complex – ©Edward B. Kurjack

Edward B. Kurjack, 1974 – Prehistoric Lowland Maya Community and Social Organization, A Case Study at Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico and,
Willis Andrews.IV and E.W.Andrews.V, 1980 – Excavations at Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico and,
Clemency Coggins, 1983 – The Stucco Decoration and Architectural Assemblage of Structure-1.sub, Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico.
MARI-Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA
Orlando Josué Casares Contreras, 2001 – Una Revisión Arqueoastronómica a la Estructura 1-Sub de Dzilbilchaltún, Yucatán – Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Merida.
Eva Jobbova, Christophe Helkme + Andrew Bevan, 2018 – Ritual Responses to Drought: An Examination of Ritual Expressions in Classic Maya Written Sources – Human Ecology
Mary Miller & Karl Taube,1993 – The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya
Evans et al, 362:498-501). Science (2018)
In 1995, Hodell, Curtis and Brenner published a paleoclimate record from Lake Chichancanab on the Yucatán Peninsula that showed an intense, protracted drought occurred in the 9th century AD and coincided with the Classic Maya collapse

Freelance writer, researcher and photographer, Georges Fery (georgefery.com) addresses topics, from history, culture, and beliefs to daily living of ancient and today’s communities of Mesoamerica and the Americas.
The author is a fellow of the Institute of Maya Studies instituteofmayastudies.org Miami, FL and The Royal Geographical Society, London, U.K. rgs.org. As well as member in good standing of the Maya Exploration Center, Austin, TX mayaexploration.org, the Archaeological Institute of America, Boston, MA archaeological.org and the NFAA-Non Fiction Authors Association nonfictionauthrosassociation.com.
Georges’ stories open windows for readers on the history of the ancient Maya, Aztecs, Easter Island and other cultures of the Americas. The articles are published online at travelthruhistory.com, ancient-origins.net and popular-archaeology.com, in the quarterly magazine Ancient American (ancientamerican.com), as well as in the U.K. at mexicolore.co.uk.
Contact: Georges Fery, 5200 Keller Springs Road, Apt. 1511, Dallas, Texas 75248 (786) 501 9692 [email protected] and [email protected]

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Dzibilchaltún

Dzibilchaltún, an important and long-occupied Maya archaeological zone and site located 10 miles north of Mérida, Yucatán. Dzibilchaltún and nearby sites such as Komchen were populated as early as 800 bce The earliest occupants of northern Yucatán lived in small farming villages, and by around 500 bce there is good evidence for formally arranged, public buildings located near town centers. During the Late Formative period (c. 300 bce–250 ce) the people of the Dzibilchaltún region were increasingly engaged in long-distance trade, and the production of salt may have provided them with a valuable resource for that trade. Ceramic and architectural similarities with Late Formative sites on the east coast of Yucatán (e.g., Cuello and Cerros) suggest maritime contacts.

During the period between 250 and 700, Dzibilchaltún and the surrounding area were sparsely populated for reasons that remain poorly understood. By 700, however, the site of Dzibilchaltún experienced rapid growth, becoming one of the largest centers in the Yucatán peninsula. An area covering 7.6 square miles with over 8,000 structures was occupied between 700 and 1000 population may have reached 25,000 or more at this time. Early in this period there are architectural similarities with Early Classic sites in the southern lowland (e.g., Uaxactun) because Dzibilchaltún architects revived an earlier style. There are also similarities with contemporary western Maya sites like Palenque. By around 830, the Puuc architectural style came to dominate Dzibilchaltún, and structures had veneer facings with geometric mosaics and three-dimensional masks.

By around 1000, Dzibilchaltún had lost its dominant position in the area and there was strong influence from Chichén Itzá to the east. The resident population of Dzibilchaltún declined dramatically, and the site appears to have become a ceremonial center in the Late Postclassic period (c. 1200–1540).

Today, many ruins of Dzibilchaltún have been rebuilt or restored, and the site is visited regularly by tourists year-round due to its close proximity to the urban center of Mérida. Tourism is especially busy for the Spring and Fall equinox visitors flock to witness the sun align and shine directly through the doorways of the Temple of the Seven Dolls for the equinox only. Also at Dzibilchaltún one can visit the highly regarded Museo de Pueblo Maya.


Exhibition rooms

The permanent exhibition covers from pre-Hispanic times to the twentieth century. The cultural development of the Mayan people, their continuity and transcendence in fields such as arts, architecture, language, dress, religion, social customs, economic processes, sciences and techniques, are disseminated.

The collection is made up of archaeological, historical and ethnographic materials, with objects of daily and ritual use, such as ceramics, carved stone, stelae, civil, and religious sculptures, textiles and clothing.

The garden

The pergola of the Monoliths where pre-Hispanic monolithic sculptures of Yucatan, Campeche, and Quintana Roo are exhibited on the side of a path that runs through a garden of native plants.

The Maya Archeology Room

The Mayan Archeology Room in the Dzibilchaltun Museum

Dedicated to the pre-Hispanic era, exhibits ceramic and architectural elements from Chiapas, Campeche and Yucatan itself arranged to illustrate themes such as the Mayan concept of the universe, the emergence of man, the relationship between man and nature, the gods, social stratification, painting, writing, specialization in work and the account of time.

The History Room

History Room in the Dzibilchaltun Museum

A special space is dedicated to the Archeology of Dzibilchaltun, to the Contact and Conquest of the Mayan People and the formation of the Yucatecan identity.

The Solar Maya

An annexed area in which a typical dwelling of the Mayan rural area was built, elaborated using techniques, materials and traditional labor.


Sitios Arqueológicos Mayas - Yucatán: Dzibilchaltún · Chichén Itzá · Mayapán · Xcambó · Uxmal (Spanish Edition) (Book)

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DZIBILCHATUN


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"Sixty-five million years ago a giant, six-mile wide extinction-level object crossed into the Earth's atmosphere at an incredible high rate of speed. So huge was the object that rather than burn up or disintegrate as it raced toward the Earth's surface it basically held together with no more than a little shedding and dissipation of heat. Within seconds of entering the Earth's thickening lower atmosphere it slammed into a shallow sea in what is now the north coast of the Yucatan, Mexico with a force comparable to 100 million megatons of TNT. The resulting impact created a crater 112 miles across and a tsunami wave two thousand feet high that swept as far north inland as the middle of present day Texas. The results of the impact caused the demise of entire species, including, it is said, the dinosaurs. Ground zero for the asteroid is pretty much considered now days to be centered near the small Yucatan city of Chicxulub."

Starting 56 miles west of the coastal community of Chicxulub and following in a circular half-circumference inland directly along the crater's outer ring until it turns north and touches the coast again 56 miles east of Chicxulub, are hundreds and hundreds of cenotes, but very few inside of the ring. So too, even though quite a number of small archaeological sites indicating the presence of casual or regular human habitation exists throughout the general northwest region, there are really only two so called first-ranked sites and five second-ranked sites located within the Chicxulub impact basin, of which one is the Maya city of Dzibilchaltun, located about 10 miles from present day Merida with the other being the last Mayan capitol following the fall of Chichen Itza, Mayapan, which sits roughly 10 miles inside the southwestern portion of the ring.

Immediately outside the crater basin rim there is one first-ranked site, Uxmal, and six second-ranked sites with Oxkintok sitting right on top of the rim. Because of that sitting right on the rim, Oxkintok played a huge role in my life as found in The Maya Shaman and Chicxulub, of which from the above opening quote is found.

To huge role in my life occurred lots of years before this trip, actually not long after I graduated from high school. On that trip I was traveling throughout Mexico with a high school buddy, the two of us eventually having made it as far south as the Yucatan on our way to Chichen Itza. Well before reaching Chichen Itza, but after we had visited a half dozen or so ruins leading up to Oxkintok, we ended somewhat south of Mayapan and had to turn north to get there. Two or three miles outside and south of Mayapan I was overcome by an all engulfing, continuous series of clear-to-my-bones cold chills rippling across my body, the abeyance of which really did not subside as much as they slowly melded into mild convulsions similar to dry-heaves then fading into a general lasting malaise all the time I was there, re the following:

"We had selected an isolated spot along the road in the middle of nowhere to stop and prepare our evening meal and crash for the night. The weather, as it had been most of the time since leaving the highlands of Mexico City, was and remained, extremely hot and muggy. After eating and cleaning up, my buddy climbed on the top of the truck to try and catch a few Z's and at least some sort of a breeze while he slept. In the meantime, not being able to sleep myself, with no real artificial light nearby or any being produced around the horizon polluting the night sky, I pulled my telescope out of its box and, turning on the headlights for a few minutes so I could see, proceeded to set it up. Then, before shutting off the lights, looked at my circular sky chart I invariably carried with me in those days to find the best time to view M31, otherwise known as the Andromeda Galaxy."

On this trip I decided to make an attempt to find the location of the spot, so identified above, that my buddy and I stopped for the night. Needless to say, in the short time I had allotted myself together with the number of years that had elapsed transforming the local geography since my initial visit, I was unable to really locate the exact same spot along the road toward Chichen Itza.

After traveling some distance eastward on the highway, and with a lack of recognizable or familiar landmarks or signs showing up as to the location I was seeking, as well as running out of time, I decided to make a U-turn and head back. On that return portion, set back in a small foliage free dirt turn-off along the side of the road I saw what looked to be a rather old, dilapidated and weather beaten three-sided open at the front roadside vendor's stand, basically put together out of sticks, a stand that I'm sure I hadn't seen on the way east. Since nothing had been along the road for miles in either direction I decided to pull over and see what the vendor had to offer.

Although she didn't move nor talk much, the proprietor as such appeared to be a little old lady assisted by a more animated young girl around six years of age with long, unkempt, to the small of her back straight black hair, wearing a simple even with her knees one piece button-back dress and a pair of black, dusty, one-strap Mary Jane flats two sizes too big --- a pair I'm sure she just slipped on as I drove up. The old lady sat there in the shade, eyes closed, hunched over holding a bark-free stick straight up and down by her side that was longer from well above her grip to the ground. After I pulled an orange colored Jarritos out of a bucket of water sitting in the shade the girl came around to the front of the table, popped the lid off and started to assist me looking at the various offers on the table.

Seeing nothing specific of interest I paid for my drink and started to leave when the old lady spoke to the the girl in Spanish to have her show me the contents of a little hand-weaved box on the table. Inside, after removing the lid, was a smooth rock about the same size as a chicken egg that looked all the same as almost any other rock. The old woman stood up slowly walking across the cleared ground the lean-to was on toward the thick foliage behind the structure. She slightly turned her head speaking Spanish to the girl as I was dumping the rock in my hand. As I did a small crumpled piece of paper under the rock fell to the ground. As I was reaching for the paper, which had something in Spanish scribbled on it and a line drawing that looked like a comet, the girl said the woman said I should recognize the rock as a piece of a meteor.

I turned as quickly as I could to catch the old lady, instantly reaching the edge of the foliage and the point where I was sure she had entered. However, the foliage was so tangled, thick, and briar-like in most places it was impossible for passage any distance anywhere along its edge. When I turned back to the lean-to, except for a pair of black, dusty, one-strap Mary Jane flats two sizes too big on the ground in the dirt in front of the empty counter, the girl was gone as well.

Finished with both Oxkintok and the search for the camping spot I returned to Merida, taking a flight to Guatemala City and from there to Tikal. In Guatemala City customs had me open my bag. Seeing the little weaved box I was asked if there was any food or live insects in it. When I said no only a rock, the man wanted me to open it. Removing the lid and tipping it toward him he wanted to know what I meant by a rock. Inside, instead of a rock, was a Barlow lens that belonged to my telescope I lost on my first trip to the Yucatan years ago just out of high school, a Barlow lens far from being a rock but instead, a small telescopic device designed to multiply a telescopes power. Basically I shrugged my shoulders suggesting I was just as much in the dark as he was. He handed the box and lens back just letting it go at that.


TYPICAL EXAMPLE OF A BARLOW LENS

The thing is, in The Maya Shaman and Chicxulub, in regards to the location of the original 1960's camping spot I was seeking to relocate in conjunction with this trip, when my buddy and I were leaving the site I packed up my telescope after having used it the night before, but was unable to locate the Barlow lens. After some rather intensive searching around trying to find it I just let it go at that, writing in the Chicxulub page, "After boxing up the telescope, finding all the pieces but the Barlow lens, we headed out." How the lens ended up in the box in customs so many years later, other than speculation on my part, is just something I am unable to answer.

Regarding the small crumpled piece of paper under the rock that fell to the ground back at the roadside stand and of which I retained, written in Spanish and of which the young girl was unable to read, but customs man could and did, translated thus:

"Why look up there when you are standing where other worlds came to ours?"

As to the above mentioned Maya city of Dzibilchaltun, I had been around and close to it on a number of occasions, but was never able to work out going there specifically, especially associated with the Spring Equinox, until one day I made an actual concerted effort to do so. It seems that I had included any number of Maya sites, ruins, and temples in my repertoire of travels wrapped around Spring Equinoxes and such --- and of which doing so, as almost anybody can figure out, makes it very difficult to include more than one site on any given equinox. However, as the quote below attests, I made a specific effort to be in Dzibilchaltun on a planned trip to Tikal completely designing my timing around being there for the equinox.

"The first half of my plan was to eliminate any long distant ground transportation when I left the U.S., going as quickly and as efficiently as possible to Tikal after a slight detour flying into the Yucatan Peninsula city of Merida in order to be at the Temple of the Seven Dolls in Dzibilchaltun at the moment of the Spring Equinox."

As mentioned, with the Seven Dolls equinox having passed, I took a flight from Merida into Guatemala City then from there to Tikal. It was only after I reached Tikal that I truly switched to ground transportation. From Tikal I made my way to Carmalita then in a circular route hiked through the jungle four or five days to the Maya ruins of El Mirador and a handful of other Maya sites both to and from. After returning to Carmalita I dropped down to Flores - Santa Elena headed toward the Guatemala Belize border, using the only real basic available options, junk-pile dilapidated former U.S. school buses, crammed from one end to the other with people, chickens, and one gallon plastic jugs filled with kerosene. At Melchor de Mencos I walked across the border into Benque Viejo del Carmen and took a bus to San Ignacio returning at my own pace to Belize City and home. My own pace however, was impacted by a variety of high profile events from ancient asteroids to Maya shamans, all of which, for those who may be so interested, are pretty much covered in Travels in the Yucatan.

Below is a series of photos related to the Spring Equinox and the Temple of the Seven Dolls located in the Maya archaeological site of Dzibilchaltun, so named as the Temple of the Seven Dolls because of the seven figures as shown at the top of the page that were found inside the temple during excavation.









(for the very moment of the sunrise please click image)





The Temple of the Seven Dolls as we see it today was discovered basically intact after archaeologists found it buried under a much larger temple. The buried temple, the Temple of the Seven Dolls as it has come to be called when seven ritual like clay figurine "dolls" were found within the structure, after careful evaluation, was determined to be the more important of the two structures because as the scientists studied the temple more closely it's layout seemed to suggest it was actually designed so it could and would mark the equinoxes, a highly significant measurement of time and a major coup for the Maya considering it's early age.


TEMPLE BUILDING IS BUILT IN A SQUARE WITH FOUR MATCHING SIDES
EACH WALL FACES DIRECTLY TOWARD A DIFFERENT CARDINAL POINT

The temple building itself is built dimensionally in a square and sits atop a much wider two terrace-high stepped square platform with each one of the four sides of the building facing toward one of the cardinal points. However, for reasons unknown, unlike the building that sits atop them, neither the platform nor the stairs are aligned with the cardinal points. To show how the early Maya architects struggled with their problem to capture the equinox in a permanent building like structure, the north-south axial line of the platform runs about 4 degrees east of true north, hence, for the building's four walls to face directly toward the cardinal points the floor plan had to be built on an angle relative to the platform. If you take notice of the architectural drawing below showing a top view of the temple building, the platform, as visually presented and taking the top of the computer screen as being north, it is tipped at 4 degrees.


THE GRAPHIC ABOVE SHOWS THE WEST FACING WALL. IF YOU WERE STANDING FACING THE WALL AS YOU ARE LOOKING
AT IT NOW, WEST WOULD BE BEHIND YOU WHILE EAST WOULD BE DIRECTLY THROUGH THE DOOR AND THE SKY BEYOND

NORTH

SOUTH

In the drawing you can see how the temple is placed on the platform with each of the four flat walls and each of the four door openings separately facing toward one of the cardinal points. At the top of the drawing the door and the wall of the temple faces due north while the wall and the door opening on the bottom faces due south. The door opening on the right faces the rising sun due east. On the equinox the light shines right straight through the building, including the two inner structure's door openings, directly toward the west falling onto the stelae some distance west of the temple. A close examination and comparison of both the photo of the temple and the architectural drawing below you can see in the photo that the temple is not aligned with the stairs nor are the doors aligned with the stone architectural features directly below them. The drawing shows the misalignment quite clearly. So said, the Maya, after no doubt a whole lot of frustration and hard work, were still able to get the whole thing to function properly, something they could only check and fix twice a year.

"The equinoxes are often mentioned in tandem with the solstices, apparently because, for many Western-minded modern people sharing superficial but evidently ethnocentric astronomical notions, they represent the only significant moments of the tropical year. Nobody seems to care that, while the solstices are marked by easily perceivable extremes of the Sun's annual path along the horizon, the equinoxes are not directly observable and can only be determined with relatively sophisticated methods."

ANCIENT COSMOLOGIES AND MODERN PROPHETS

In reference to the above quote, people go on-and-on about the greatness of Stonehenge and it's design being able to mark the summer solstice. However, it you take in consideration the above quote and the difference of sophistication required between measuring solstices and equinoxes, the Mayan usually come out the short end of the stick when it comes to their accomplishments.[1]

TRAVELS IN THE YUCATAN
ASTEROIDS, SHAMANS, AND THE HIDDEN MAGIC OF MAYA TEMPLES


ALTUN HA'S SACRIFICIAL ALTAR AND THE CHICXULUB IMPACT
(please click image)


To get to Dzibilchaltun ruins most everyone is coming from the Merida area. These ruins are off the Merida-Progresso Highway (261). Take the exit on your right to Dzibilchaltun and go approximately 3 kilometers. The last turn is not well marked. Look for an entrance to your right after the small the town. At the end of this road is a parking lot. Parking is 20 pesos.

How to take public transportation to Dzibilchaltun ruins

If you are in Merida you can catch a colectivo taxi from Calle 58 between 59 and 57 in the center.

Have you been to Dzibilchaltun Mayan ruins? Kaj si mislil? Let us know in the comments below. We would love to hear from you.


Poglej si posnetek: Dzibilchaltún - HERMOSA Zona Arqueológica y su CENOTE Xlacah en Yucatán (Januar 2022).