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Na Irskem odkril 1.000 let starega vikinškega meča v izrednem stanju

Na Irskem odkril 1.000 let starega vikinškega meča v izrednem stanju

1.000 let star leseni meč vikinškega tkalca so arheologi odkrili na zgodovinskem mestu nekdanje pivovarne Beamish in Crawford v mestu Cork na Irskem. Strokovnjaki meč opisujejo kot artefakt "izjemnega pomena".

Popolnoma ohranjen meč Vikingov, odkrit na Irskem

Kot poroča The Irish Times, je bil vikinški meč odkrit v odličnem stanju, kar je še posebej razveselilo arheologe. Po dosedanjih informacijah je dragocena najdba dolga nekaj več kot 30 cm () 12 centimetrov, v celoti izdelana iz tise, na njej pa so izrezljani človeški obrazi, značilni za slog Ringerike v vikinški umetnosti, ki segajo v pozno 11. th stoletju. Artefakte Vikingov so odkrili maja, uradno pa so jih razglasili šele pred kratkim po neformalnem obisku norveške veleposlanice na Irskem Else Berit Eikeland v javnem muzeju Cork.

Else Berit Eikeland (na sredini) na razstavi King of the Vikings, Waterford, Irska (Slika: kraljevi hevikingov)

Maurice Hurley, svetovalec arheolog in vodja izkopavanja na tem mestu, je meč opisal kot enega od peščice artefaktov "izjemnega pomena", odkritih med nedavnimi izkopavanji na mestu South Main Street. Najdeni so bili tudi nedotaknjeni tlorisi 19 vikinških stanovanj, ostanki osrednjih ognjišč in posteljnina. "Dolgo je veljalo prepričanje, da je najmočnejši vpliv Vikingov na Dublin in Waterford, vendar celoten spekter dokazov kaže, da je bil Cork v isti kulturni sferi in da je bil njegov razvoj zelo podoben," je dejal za The Irish Times poročali. "V Wood Quayu je bilo najdenih nekaj predmetov, podobnih tkalčevemu meču, vendar nič od kakovosti izdelave in ohranjenosti tega," je dodal.

Ročaj 30 cm dolgega orodja za tkanje Viking (BAM Irska)

Dr.Hurley je bil prijetno presenečen nad dejstvom, da je več lesenih predmetov v tako odličnem stanju preživelo pod zemljo. "To je precej čudežno," je dejal v poročilu The Irish Times. Poleg tega predlaga, da so meč v glavnem uporabljale ženske pri vsakodnevnih opravilih: "Meč so verjetno uporabljale ženske, da bi zabijale niti na statve; koničasti konec je namenjen pobiranju niti za izdelavo vzorcev," je dejal je rekel.

Izjemno iskanje meča

Kljub ogromni arheološki in zgodovinski vrednosti nedavnega odkritja ni tako prvič, da je odkril tako star vikinški meč.

Prejšnji mesec je lovska družina našla neverjetno dobro ohranjen kovinski vikinški meč, ki je odkrito ležal v skalah visoko v hribih na Norveškem. Rezilo, staro približno 1100 let, je bilo zarjavelo, sicer pa v skoraj nedotaknjenem stanju zaradi kakovosti železa in ekstremnih hladnih razmer, kjer so ga našli.

  • Pohodnik med hojo po starodavni poti na Norveškem naleti na 1200-letni vikinški meč
  • Lovci najdejo presenetljiv meč vikingov, izoliran na visoki nadmorski višini na Norveškem

Vikinški meč, datiran v c. AD 850-950. ( Espen Finstad, Skrivnosti okrožnega sveta Ice/ Oppland )

Kot je v prejšnjem članku o starodavnem izvoru poročala April Holloway, je skupina lovcev, ki je sledila gosem v Skaftárhreppurju na Južni Islandiji, pred skoraj letom dni odkrila 1000-letni vikinški meč, ki je popolnoma odprt v pesku. Dvorezni meč je bil glede na starost izjemnega stanja. Meč so nato predali islandski agenciji za kulturno dediščino, ki je izvedla nadaljnja preskušanja in ohranitev meča.

  • Meč poznega vikinškega obdobja je razkril razstavne povezave med Norveško in Anglijo
  • 1000-letni meč Vikingov, ki so ga na Islandiji odkrili moški, ki lovijo gosi

Na Islandiji našli 1000 let star meč Kredit: Árni Björn Valdimarsson

Takšne najdbe so redke, vendar boste veliko bolj verjetno naleteli na kovinski meč, ki je star 1000 let ali več kot lesen. Kljub temu je v začetku tega meseca Ancient Origins poročal o dveh majhnih, lesenih mečih iz rimske dobe, starih vsaj 1600 let, ki sta bili dobro ohranjeni zaprti zemlji v Vindolandi v Angliji. To naj bi bili meči igrač in kakovost rokodelstva se ne ujema s kakovostjo nove najdbe.

  • Med zakladi, najdenimi na trdnjavi Frontier, sta dva rimska konjeniška meča in dva mečasta meča
  • Raziskovalci se sprašujejo, ali je bil pokop bogate vikinške čolne na Škotskem narejen za žensko bojevnico

Eden od starodavnih lesenih mečev z igračami z draguljem v kocki ( Zaklad Vindolanda )

Vikinški meči so pogosto imeli ročaje, ki so bili bogato okrašeni z zapletenimi vzorci v srebru, bakru in bronu. Višji kot je status posameznika, ki je dal meč, bolj oprijemljiv je oprijem. Zdi se, da se dr. Hurley strinja s splošnim soglasjem, ko je o novoodkritem meču dejal: "Zelo je okrašen - Vikingi so okrasili vsak utilitarni predmet," poroča The Irish Times.

Ne gre samo za izrazito razliko v izdelavi, ki kaže, da gre za tkalčev meč, ampak tudi za druge predmete, ki jih najdemo v bližini, med drugim tudi za leseno navijanje niti z dvema glavama konjev, povezano tudi s tkanjem tkanin.

Človeška glava, izrezana na koncu ročaja (Slika: BAM Ireland)

Lord župan mesta Cork opisuje držanje meča kot "čarobno" izkušnjo

Veličastni Tony Fitzgerald, župan mesta Cork, je svojo izkušnjo z vikinškim mečem, ki je bil skoraj tisočletje skrit, opisal kot nekaj čarobnega. »Vlaga na bodalu je bila sveža; bil je v popolnem stanju, "je dejal, ko je poročal The Irish Times, hkrati pa je drzno napovedal, da bo" zelo močan interes javnosti ", ko bodo predmeti na ogled, kar bi lahko bilo že februarja 2018.

Konec koncev so dragoceni ostanki Vikingov trenutno pod nadzorom naravovarstvenikov v Narodnem muzeju Irske. Kustos Javnega muzeja Cork Daniel Breen je izrazil zanimanje za vodenje razstave o vplivu Vikingov v Corku, vendar je dodal, da je to še prezgodaj, saj bi bila izpostavljenost artefaktov preveliki količini kisika brez kemične obdelave zanje katastrofalna. prvi.


Odkril se je obraz 1000-letne vikinške bojevnice z grozljivo bojno rano po lobanji

OBRAZ 1.000-letnih žensk vikinških bojevnic so znanstveniki rekonstruirali.

Neverjetna rekonstrukcija je dopolnjena z grozljivo bojno rano na njeni lobanji in večplastno kožo.

Britanski znanstveniki so vikinško žensko oživili s tehnologijo rekonstrukcije obraza.

Svoje delo so oprli na okostje, najdeno na vikinškem pokopališču v Solørju na Norveškem, ki je zdaj ohranjeno v Oslovskem muzeju kulturne zgodovine.

Bojevnica je bila pokopana obdana s smrtonosnim orožjem, vendar se zaradi njenega spola sprva ni štelo za bojevnico.

Pokopali so jo s kopico orožja, vključno s puščicami, mečem, sulico in sekiro, a vdolbina v glavi je bila večji namig o njeni preteklosti.

Vdolbina v njeni lobanji je bila skladna z rano na meču in položena je bila v grob z glavo naslonjeno na ščit.

Strokovnjaki niso prepričani, ali je poškodba glave povzročila smrt ženske Vikinga in#x27.

Vendar je arheologinja Ella Al-Shamahi za The Guardian povedala, da je to "prvi dokaz o vikinški ženski z bojno poškodbo".

Dodala je: & quot; Tako sem navdušena, ker je to obraz, ki ga niso videli že 1000 let ... Nenadoma je postala resnična. & Quot

Znanstveniki so tako realističen obraz zgradili tako, da so anatomsko delali navzgor od mišic do plasti kože na vrhu odlitka lobanje.

Rekonstrukcijska tehnologija nikoli ni 100% natančna, vendar raziskovalci menijo, da bi ljudje, ki so dobro poznali Vikinško žensko, lahko prepoznali njeno rekonstrukcijo.

S podobno tehnologijo so poustvarili ženski grob, vključno z namestitvijo vsega orožja, s katerim je bila pokopana.

Arheolog Al-Shamahi bo predstavil dokumentarni film National Geographic o obnovi in ​​ženskih vikinških bojevnikih, ki bo izšel prihodnji mesec.

Ženske vikinške bojevnice bodo na kanalu National Geographic predvajane v torek, 3. decembra, ob 20. uri.

Kratka zgodovina Vikingov

Tukaj morate vedeti.

  • Vikinška doba je obdobje v evropski zgodovini in sega od okoli 800 do 1050 AD
  • Nekatere skupine Vikingov so po tem obdobju živele nekoliko dlje v različnih državah po svetu
  • Izvirajo iz Skandinavije in so na svojih znamenitih vikinških ladjah prepotovali ves svet
  • Znani so po kolonizaciji in brutalnem napadu na nova območja
  • Vikingi so ustvarili trgovsko mrežo po vsem svetu in dokaze o podobnih stilih hiš, nakit, orodje in veliko druge vsakodnevne opreme lahko najdemo v številnih različnih državah
  • Vikinška doba v Veliki Britaniji se je končala, ko je bil norveški kralj Haraldr harðráði ubit v bitki pri Stamford Bridgeu leta 1066
  • Vikingi so običajno prikazani kot rogovi na čeladah, vendar je le ena dobro ohranjena čelada iz vikinške dobe in ta nima rogov

TOP ZGODBE V ZNANOSTI

TRDNO KOT SKALA

VZHODNO NEBO

RAZDELJENI

WAT-ER ODKRITJE!

DIMI IZ BUGA

TELEFONSKI DOM?

Po drugih arheoloških novicah je Tutankamonova "prekleta" trobenta, ki povzroča "smrtonosni konflikt", prispela v Veliko Britanijo.

Izgubljeni kamniti krog iz bronaste dobe, uporabljen za starodavne rituale, so v Gloucestershireu odkrili z laserskim skeniranjem.

Lovec zakladov je v Buckinghamshireu odkril starodavni kovanec z gravuro osla iz Shreka.

Kaj menite o obnovi Vikingov? Sporočite nam v komentarjih.

Plačujemo za vaše zgodbe! Ali imate zgodbo za ekipo The Sun Online Tech & amp Science? Pošljite nam e-pošto na [email protected]

Več od Sonca


VIKINGI

Leta 865 je velika poganska vojska Vikingov pristala na vzhodni obali Anglije in prejšnji napad na samostan Lindisfarne je spodbudil nekega duhovnika, da reče: “ Nikoli prej se v Britaniji ni pojavil takšen teror zdaj smo trpeli zaradi poganske rase. ” Do 10. stoletja so v treh angleških in štirih kraljestvih prevladovali Vikingi, ki so se postopoma spreobrnili v krščanstvo in se naselili na osvojenih ozemljih (1).

Vikinška doba raziskovanja, trgovanja in kolonizacije je trajala skoraj 300 let. Napadli so vse do Newfoundlanda na zahodu, v Sredozemlje in njegova številna pristanišča na jugu ter do Kaspijskega morja in po rekah Vzhodne Evrope, kot sta Volga in Dneiper — proti vzhodu.

Območja, ki mejijo na Severno morje, so bila močno kolonizirana, pri čemer so bila v glavnem vključena Škotska, Irska, Anglija, Francija, Nizozemska in Belgija. Vikingi so bili na Škotskem prisotni skoraj 500 let. Za seboj so pustili številne skandinavske družine in krajevna imena, ki so nadomestila prvotno galsko. Za seboj so pustili tudi DD, ki se je na nekaterih področjih ohranil do danes, na primer na Škotskem, na primer od 15. stoletja so upognjeni prsti odraslih moških gajdanov znani kot “the prekletstvo MacCrimmonov. ” V Angliji, Vikingi, ki so se naselili na območju vzhodne Anglije, so postali kmetje in do danes so pogosti priimki, ki izvirajo iz skandinavskih korenin. Moj priimek se je nanašal na tiste, ki so se naselili na ravnih deželah vzhodne Anglije. Tako kot Vikingi so se tudi otroci Flatt rodili s pepelnatimi lasmi, mnogi pa so bili modrooki. To je veljalo, dokler se leta 1598 ladje španske armade niso razbile ob angleški obali. Preživeli so priplavali na kopno in se pridružili lokalnim kmetom, zato so bili pozneje otroci Flatt ob rojstvu blond, vendar so imeli v svojih najstniških letih črno-črne lase — .Flatti so morali imeti močne gene, saj niti oče niti jaz nisva imela DD kljub našim vikinškim koreninam.


Zgodovina Irske

Prvi dokazi o človeški prisotnosti na Irskem segajo pred približno 33.000 leti [1], druge ugotovitve pa so nastale okoli 10.500 do 8.000 pr. Umik ledu po hladni fazi kvartarja v mlajšem Dryasu okoli leta 9700 pr. Pred našim štetjem in železno dobo, ki se je začela okoli leta 600 pr. Irska bronasta doba se začne z nastankom "protozgodovinske" galske Irske v 2. tisočletju pred našim štetjem in se konča s prihodom keltske latenske kulture v srednjo Evropo.

Do konca 4. stoletja našega štetja je krščanstvo začelo postopoma prevzemati ali nadomeščati prejšnji keltski politeizem. Konec 6. stoletja je skupaj s pretežno samostansko keltsko krščansko cerkvijo uvedlo pisanje, ki je močno spremenilo irsko družbo. Napadi Vikingov in naseljevanje v poznem 8. stoletju našega štetja so povzročili obsežno kulturno izmenjavo ter inovacije v vojaški in transportni tehnologiji. Številna irska mesta so bila ustanovljena takrat, ko so se prvič pojavila vikinška trgovska mesta in kovanci. [2] Prodor Vikingov je bil omejen in skoncentriran vzdolž obal in rek ter je po bitki pri Clontarfu leta 1014. prenehal biti velika grožnja galski kulturi. Normanska invazija leta 1169 je ponovno povzročila delno osvojitev otoka in označila začetek več kot 800 let angleškega političnega in vojaškega sodelovanja na Irskem. Sprva uspešni normanski dobički so se v naslednjih stoletjih vračali nazaj, ko je galski vstanek [3] ponovno vzpostavil galsko kulturno prevlado v večini države, razen obzidanih mest in območja okoli Dublina, znanega kot The Pale.

Zmanjšana na nadzor majhnih žepov, je angleška krona poskusila osvojiti otok šele po koncu vojn vrtnic (1488). S tem so se v začetku 16. stoletja sprostili viri in delovna sila za širitev v tujino. Toda narava decentralizirane politične organizacije Irske na majhna ozemlja (znana kot túatha), borilne tradicije, težak teren in podnebje ter pomanjkanje mestne infrastrukture so pomenili, da so bili poskusi uveljavljanja kronske oblasti počasni in dragi. Poskusom vsiljevanja nove protestantske vere so se uspešno uprli tudi galski in normansko-irski. Nova politika je spodbudila upor hiberno-normanskega grofa iz Kildareja Silken Thomasa leta 1534, ki je želel braniti svojo tradicionalno avtonomijo in katolicizem, ter označila začetek dolgotrajnega osvajanja Irske s Tudorji, ki je trajal od 1534 do 1603. Henrik VIII se je razglasil za kralja Irske leta 1541 za olajšanje projekta. Irska je postala potencialno bojišče v vojnah med katoliško protireformacijo in protestantsko reformacijsko Evropo.

Poskusi Anglije, da bi osvojila ali asimilirala tako hiberno-normanska gospostva kot galska ozemlja v Kraljevino Irsko, so zagotovili tekoče bojevanje, pomembni primeri so 1. Desmondov upor, 2. Desmondov upor in devetletna vojna. To obdobje je zaznamovala kronska politika sprva predaje in ponovnega selitve, kasneje pa nasada, ki je vključeval prihod tisočev angleških in škotskih protestantskih naseljencev ter razseljevanje tako hibernonormanov (ali starih Angležev, kot sta bila znani do takrat) in domači katoliški posestniki. Britanske kolonije na Irskem segajo v 1550. Irska je bila verjetno prva angleška in nato britanska kolonija, ki jo je kolonizirala skupina, znana kot West Country Men. Galska Irska je bila končno poražena v bitki pri Kinsaleu leta 1601, ki je označila propad galskega sistema in začetek irske zgodovine kot polnega dela angleškega in kasneje britanskega cesarstva.

V 17. stoletju se je ta razkorak med protestantsko manjšinsko posestjo in odvzeto katoliško večino stopnjeval in spopad med njimi naj bi postal ponavljajoča se tema v irski zgodovini. Prevladovanje Irske s protestantsko prevlado se je okrepilo po dveh obdobjih verske vojne, vojnah irskih konfederacij v letih 1641–52 in vilijamski vojni v letih 1689–91. Politična moč je bila nato skoraj izključno v rokah manjšinske protestantske prevlade, medtem ko so katoličani in pripadniki protestantskih veroizpovedi, ki se niso strinjali, utrpeli hude politične in gospodarske izgube po kazenskih zakonih.

1. januarja 1801, po republikanskem uporu Združenih Ircev, je bil irski parlament ukinjen in Irska je postala del novega Združenega kraljestva Velike Britanije in Irske, ustanovljenega z akti Unije 1800. Katoličanom so bile priznane vse pravice do katoliškega Emancipacija leta 1829, ki jo je dosegel Daniel O'Connell. Katastrofa velike lakote je leta 1845 prizadela Irsko, kar je povzročilo več kot milijon smrti zaradi lakote in bolezni ter milijon beguncev, ki so pobegnili iz države, predvsem v Ameriko. Irski poskusi, da bi se odcepili, so se nadaljevali s Parnellovo irsko parlamentarno stranko, ki si je od osemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja prizadevala doseči domačo vladavino s pomočjo parlamentarnega ustavnega gibanja, s čimer je na koncu zmagala zakon o domačem pravu leta 1914, čeprav je bil ta zakon ob izbruhu prve svetovne vojne prekinjen.

Leta 1916 je velikonočni vstaji po usmrtitvi voditeljev s strani britanskih oblasti uspelo obrniti javno mnenje proti britanskemu establišmentu. Zasenčilo je tudi gibanje domačih pravil. Leta 1922, po irski osamosvojitveni vojni, se je večina Irske odcepila od Združenega kraljestva, da bi postala neodvisna irska svobodna država, vendar je po anglo-irski pogodbi šest severovzhodnih okrožij, znanih kot Severna Irska, ostalo v Združenem kraljestvu, kar je ustvarilo delitev Irske. Pogodbi so nasprotovali številni, njihovo nasprotovanje pa je privedlo do izbruha irske državljanske vojne, v kateri so sile Irske svobodne države ali "pro-pogodbene" sile zmagale. V zgodovini Severne Irske je od takrat prevladovala delitev družbe po ločnicah in konflikt med (predvsem katoliškimi) irskimi nacionalisti in (predvsem protestantskimi) britanskimi unionisti. Te delitve so izbruhnile v težavah v poznih šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, potem ko so oblasti prevzele nasprotovanje protestnikov za državljanske pravice. Nasilje se je stopnjevalo, potem ko je napotitev britanske vojske za ohranitev oblasti privedla do spopadov z nacionalističnimi skupnostmi. Nasilje se je nadaljevalo 28 let, dokler ni bil s sporazumom na veliki petek leta 1998 končno dosežen nelagoden, a v veliki meri uspešen mir.


3. Kaj vemo

Po nekaj stoletjih poročil in opazovanj vemo, da:

(a) Stanje je redko, vendar ena od 10 avtističnih oseb pokaže nekaj spretnosti

V raziskavi Rimland (1978) med 5400 otroki z avtizmom so starši poročali, da imajo 531 posebne sposobnosti, 10 -odstotna incidenca sindroma savant pa je postala splošno sprejeta številka pri avtistični motnji. Hermelin (2001) pa je ocenil, da bo ta številka tako nizka kot ‘ en ali dva v letu 200 ’. Vendar prisotnost sindroma savant ni omejena le na avtizem. V raziskavi institucionaliziranega prebivalstva z diagnozo duševne zaostalosti je bila incidenca savantnih spretnosti 1  : � (0,06% Hill 1977). Novejša študija je raziskala 583 objektov in ugotovila stopnjo razširjenosti 1,4 na 1000 ali približno dvakrat večjo oceno po Hillu (Saloviita et al. 2000).

Ne glede na natančne številke so duševna zaostalost in druge oblike razvojne motnje pogostejše od avtistične motnje, zato je razumna ocena lahko, da ima približno 50 odstotkov oseb s sindromom savant avtistično motnjo, ostalih 50 odstotkov pa druge oblike razvoja invalidnostjo, duševno zaostalostjo ali drugo poškodbo ali boleznijo osrednjega živčevja. Tako nimajo vse avtistične osebe sindroma savant in nimajo vse osebe s sindromom savant avtistične motnje.

(b) Moških je več žensk pri avtizmu in sindromu savant

Samci presegajo število samic za približno 6  : 𠂡 razmerje pri sindromu savant v primerjavi s približno razmerjem 4  : 𠂡 pri avtistični motnji. Geschwind & Galaburda (1987) sta pri razlagi te ugotovitve v svojem delu o možganski lateralizaciji opozorila, da se leva polobla običajno konča svoj razvoj pozneje kot desna polobla in je tako podvržena prenatalnim vplivom, od katerih so nekateri lahko škodljivi, daljše časovno obdobje. Zlasti pri moškem plodu lahko krožeči testosteron, ki lahko doseže zelo visoke ravni, upočasni rast in poslabša delovanje nevronov na bolj ranljivo izpostavljeni levi polobli, pri čemer dejansko povečanje in premik prevladujejo v prid veščinam, povezanim z desno poloblo. Predvidena je bila ‘patologija superiornosti ’ s kompenzacijsko rastjo v desnih možganih kot posledica poslabšanega razvoja ali dejanske poškodbe levih možganov.

Ta ugotovitev lahko upošteva tudi visoko moško in žensko razmerje pri drugih motnjah, vključno z samim avtizmom, saj se pri avtizmu pogosto pojavlja disfunkcija leve poloble (Treffert 2005, 2006a). Pri drugih pogojih, kot so disleksija, zapozneli govor in jecljanje, prevladujejo tudi moški, kar je lahko manifestacija istega motenja rasti leve poloble v zgoraj opisanem prenatalnem obdobju.

(c) Savantne spretnosti se običajno pojavljajo v zanimivo ozkem razponu posebnih sposobnosti

Glede na vse sposobnosti v človeškem repertoarju je zanimivo, da se savantne veščine na splošno zožijo na pet splošnih kategorij: glasbo, običajno izvedba, najpogosteje klavir, s popolno višino, čeprav so poročali, da je komponiranje v odsotnosti nastopa igralo na več instrumentov (kar 22) umetnost, običajno risanje, slikanje ali kiparjenje koledarski izračun (čudno veščina pri večini ljudi) matematikavključno z izračunom strele ali zmožnostjo izračuna praštevil, na primer v odsotnosti drugih preprostih aritmetičnih sposobnosti in mehansko ali prostorske spretnostivključno z zmožnostjo natančnega merjenja razdalj brez koristi instrumentov, zmožnostjo izdelave zapletenih modelov ali struktur s skrbno natančnostjo ali obvladovanjem izdelave zemljevidov in usmerjanja.

Manj pogosto so poročali o drugih spretnostih, vključno z: čudežnim jezikom (poli-glotom) nenavadno senzorično diskriminacijo pri vonju, dotiku ali vidu, vključno s sinestezijo, popolnim spoštovanjem prehodnega časa brez koristi ure in izjemnim znanjem na posebnih področjih, kot so nevrofiziologija, statistika ali navigacijo. V vzorcu Rimlanda (1978), ki je obsegal 543 otrok s posebnimi veščinami, je bila najpogosteje prijavljena glasbena sposobnost, ki ji sledijo spomin, umetnost, psevdobesedne sposobnosti, matematika, zemljevidi in smeri, koordinacija, računanje koledarja in ekstrasenzorično zaznavanje. Hiperleksijo, ki jo odlikuje prezgodnja in ne starostno odvisna raven spretnosti, so pogosto poročali tudi pri avtizmu (Grigorenko et al. 2002).

Na splošno obstaja ena posebna spretnost, v nekaterih primerih pa hkrati obstaja več veščin. Rimland & Fein (1988) je ugotovil, da se je pojavnost veščin pri učiteljih z avtizmom povečala kot pri učiteljih z drugimi motnjami v razvoju. Ne glede na posebno spretnost je vedno povezana z izjemnim spominom. Nekateri opazovalci spomin navajajo kot ločeno posebno spretnost, vendar je ogromen spomin sposobnost, ki jo imajo vsi znanstveniki, da preseže vsa področja spretnosti kot skupni, sestavni del samega sindroma. Več raziskovalcev je pokazalo, da sam spomin ne more v celoti pojasniti savantnih sposobnosti, zlasti koledarskega računanja in glasbenih spretnosti (Nettlebeck & Young 1999 Hermelin 2001). Uradno testiranje eidetičnih posnetkov kaže, da je ta pojav prisoten v nekaterih, vsekakor pa ne v vseh savantih, in če je prisoten, lahko obstaja bolj kot marker možganske poškodbe kot kot osrednji del savantnih sposobnosti (Bender et al. 1968 Giray & Barclay 1977).

(d) Obstaja širok spekter spretnih veščin

Najpogostejši so veščine drobljenja, ki obsedajo obsedenost in spomin na glasbene in športne malenkosti, na primer številke registrskih tablic, zemljevide, zgodovinska dejstva ali nejasne predmete, na primer zvoke motorja sesalnika. Nadarjeni znanstveniki so tiste osebe s kognitivnimi motnjami, pri katerih so glasbene, umetniške ali druge posebne sposobnosti izrazitejše in bolj izpopolnjene, običajno na področju enotnega znanja in so zelo opazne, če gledamo v nasprotju s splošno invalidnostjo. Čudovit savant je izraz, rezerviran za tiste izjemno redke posameznike, za katere je posebna spretnost tako izjemna, da bi bila spektakularna, tudi če bi se pojavila pri osebi brez okvare. Po mojih izkušnjah jih je verjetno manj kot 100 znano čudežni znanstveniki, ki trenutno živijo po vsem svetu in bi dosegli ta zelo visok prag sposobnosti učenjaka.

(e) Posebne veščine vedno spremlja čudovit spomin

Ne glede na posebne sposobnosti, izjemen spomin na edinstven in enoten tip zvari stanje skupaj. Za ta izredni spomin so bili uporabljeni izrazi, kot so avtomatski, mehanski, betonski in podobni navadam. Down (1887) je uporabil izraz ‘verbalna adhezija ’ Critchley (1979) je uporabil izraz 𠆎xultation of memory ’ ali ‘memory brez upoštevanja ’ Tredgold (1914) je uporabil izraz 𠆊utomatic ’ ȁ 1898) je označil svojega pacienta z izjemnim spominom kot ‘pretirano obliko navade ’. Takšen nezavedni spomin nakazuje, kaj je Mishkin et al. (1984) imenovana nezavedna ‘habit ’ formacija namesto ‘semantičnega ’ pomnilniškega sistema. Predlagali so dva različna nevronska vezja za ti dve različni vrsti spomina: kortikolimbično vezje na višji ravni za pomenski spomin in nižje kortiko-striatno vezje za bolj primitiven spomin na navade, ki se včasih imenuje tudi proceduralni ali implicitni spomin. Znanstveni spomin je značilno zelo globok, vendar zelo ozek, v mejah spremljajoče posebne spretnosti.

(f) Savantov sindrom je lahko prirojen ali pridobljen

Najpogosteje se spretne veščine pojavijo v otroštvu in se prekrivajo z nekaterimi osnovnimi razvojnimi motnjami, ki so prisotne ob rojstvu. Pridobljene ‘ pridobljene ’ spretnosti pa se lahko pojavijo tudi, če jih prej ni bilo, pri nevrotipičnih posameznikih po možganski poškodbi ali bolezni pozneje v otroštvu, otroštvu ali odraslem življenju (Lythgoe et al. 2005 Treffert 2006a). Nedavna poročila o sposobnostih savantnega tipa, ki se pojavljajo pri prej zdravih starejših osebah s fronto-časovno demenco, so bila še posebej zanimiva (Miller et al. 1998, 2000 ur et al. 2000). Možnost mirujočega potenciala, ki jo sproži ali sprosti poškodba osrednjega živčevja pri vsaki osebi, ima daljnosežne posledice, kot je razloženo drugje v tem zvezku.

Pomembno vprašanje je, ali v sorodnikih znanstvenikov prve stopnje najdemo posebne sposobnosti. Dve študiji, ena s 25 učitelji in druga s 51 predmeti, sta pokazala sorodnike s posebnimi veščinami nekaj zagotovo pa ne vsi primeri (Duckett 1976 Young 1995). Druga študija 23 sorodnikov skrbno preučenih znanstvenikov je odkrila le enega družinskega člana s posebnimi veščinami (LaFontaine 1974).

Young (1995) je potoval v številne države in se srečal s 51 učitelji in njihovimi družinami ter dokončal največjo študijo, ki je bila do sedaj izvedena na savantih, z uporabo enotnega zbiranja zgodovine in standardiziranega psihološkega testiranja. Enainštirdeset učencev je imelo diagnozo avtizma, preostali pa še kakšno drugo vrsto intelektualne okvare: 12 je bilo ocenjenih kot neverjetnih znanstvenikov, 20 je bilo ocenjenih kot nadarjenih, preostalih 19 pa je imelo drobne sposobnosti. Naučniki v tej seriji primerov so imeli naslednje skupne elemente: nevrološke okvare z idiosinkratičnimi in divergentnimi intelektualnimi sposobnostmi in intelektualne okvare v skladu z intenzivnim zanimanjem za avtizem in preobremenjenostjo s posebnimi področji sposobnosti, ki temeljijo na pravilih, togih in visoko strukturiranih veščinah brez kritičnih vidikov ustvarjalnosti in kognitivne fleksibilnosti ohranjene nevrološke zmogljivosti za obdelavo informacij v zvezi s posebnimi veščinami, dobro razvit deklarativni spomin, družinska zgodovina podobnih veščin v nekaterih, vendar ne vseh primerih, vendar tudi v odsotnosti zgodovine posebne veščine je bila družinska nagnjenost k visokim dosežkom in ozračje podpore, spodbude in okrepitve družin, delavcev, učiteljev, oskrbnikov in drugih.

(g) Savantne spretnosti ne zbledijo ali izginejo, temveč je pogosto videti vzorec posnemanja improvizacije do ustvarjanja

Primer Nadie, ki je izgubila svoje posebne umetniške sposobnosti, ko je bila izpostavljena tradicionalnemu šolanju, je odprl možnost ‘zastrašenega kompromisa ’ spretnih veščin za pridobivanje boljših jezikovnih, komunikacijskih in vsakdanjih veščin (Selfe 1978). Toda izkušnje so pokazale, da je takšna izguba posebnih veščin prej izjema kot pravilo pri sindromu savant. Namesto tega ob nadaljnji uporabi posebne sposobnosti vztrajajo na isti ravni ali se dejansko povečujejo.

Zdaj, ko sem imel skoraj 30 let priložnost spremljati razvijanje savantnih sposobnosti pri nekaterih posameznikih, sem videl vzorec napredovanja savantnih sposobnosti pri številnih čudežnih savantih, ki se konča predvsem kot ustvarjalec. Glede na te ugotovitve bi v svoji knjigi popravil svoje prvotne pripombe Izredni ljudje da so znanstveniki zagotovo pokazali izjemen talent in osupljive sposobnosti podvajanja, vendar niso bili zelo ustvarjalni. Motil sem se.

Vzorec, ki sem ga opazil, se začne s spektakularnim, dobesednim podvajanje stvari, ki ste jih videli ali slišali. Leslie Lemke je na primer pri 14 letih brezhibno predvajal prvi klavirski koncert Čajkovskega, ki ga je prvič slišal kot tematsko pesem za televizijski film. Od tam se je Leslie čez čas preselil iz dobesednega podvajanje (kar še zmore) improvizacija, navidezno se je naveličal samo reproduciranje tega, kar je slišal. V zadnjih letih se je Leslie zdaj preselil v ustvarjanje popolnoma novih pesmi, ki jih sestavlja, igra in poje. Ta vzorec podvajanje do improvizacija do ustvarjanje je bilo dokazano v drugih glasbenih naukih. Znana japonska glasbena zmožnost kot a skladatelj odločno dokazuje, da so znanstveniki lahko ustvarjalni 40 izvirno deli na dveh mednarodno priljubljenih zgoščenkah močno dokumentirajo to sposobnost (Cameron 1998).

Isti prehod lahko opazimo pri umetniških naučnikih. Na primer, Stephen Wiltshire zagotovo lahko ponoviti na osupljiv način, kar vidi v nedavnem dokumentarnem filmskem posnetku, ko je po 45-milimetrski vožnji s helikopterjem nad Rimom v tridnevnem risarskem maratonu naredil brezhibno natančno risbo na platnu pet in pol dvorišča . It captures with precision the many square miles he has seen street by street, building by building and column by column. A blueprint of the coliseum, superimposed on his drawing, shows an astonishing accurate replication. That clip can be seen at www.savantsyndrome.com. However, Stephen can also improvise in his drawings, and he can also create scenes of his choosing. He has several art books published, and now has his own art gallery in London, which displays his various drawing styles (Wiltshire 1987, 1991).

There are other examples of this same replication to improvisation to creation pattern that space prohibits describing here. However, they are documented in Extraordinary people and on the savant syndrome website in detail.

(h) No single theory can explain all savants

Since Down's first description of savant syndrome, numerous theories have been put forth to explain this astonishing juxtaposition of ability and disability in the same person. Space precludes outlining those here but I do discuss them in detail in Extraordinary people. In the ‘How do they do it?’ chapter in that book, I outline in detail as well my speculation, based on observation, imaging and neuropsychological studies of a number of savants, that one mechanism in some savants, whether congenital or acquired, is left brain dysfunction with right brain compensation, a form of ‘paradoxical functional facilitation’ as described by Kapur (1996). Brink (1980) raised that possibility with a case in which left brain injury in a child gave rise to some mechanical and other savant skills. Miller's recent work with persons with fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) in whom savant skills surfaced, sometimes at a prodigious level, adds impetus to that speculation (Miller et al. 1998, 2000). Those studies led him to conclude that ‘loss of function in the left anterior lobe may lead to facilitation of artistic or musical skills’. Hou et al. (2000) stated it this way: ‘The anatomic substrate for the savant syndrome may involve loss of function in the left temporal lobe with enhanced function of the posterior neocortex’.

Other current theories, including genetic, cognitive and neural, will be explored in other contributions to this volume.


POVEZANI ČLANKI

He said: 'I was out and about just up that area and it was sticking out of a bit of clay mud so I pulled it out.

'I first thought it was a bit of tat but the history of the Thames goes through all the ages so I put the call out to archaeologist and groups and they said 'oh my God preserve it straight away.'

Mr Tomlinson says he 'can't quite believe' the outcome.

Mr Tomlinson, from Birchington, Kent, made the discovery of the leather moccasin in October last year while searching in the estuary and the results have just been returned. Heel and toe marks are so well preserved they can be seen on the shoe

Steve Tomlinson, 47, (pictured) was exploring the estuary when he stumbled across the unassuming object protruding from the mud flats. The amateur archaeologist was unaware of its historical significance and was urged by his peers to send it off for expert analysis

He added: 'It is a rare find and amazingly it is still in superb preserved condition, probably due to the fact it was very well preserved in clay along with the sea, keeping it constantly waterlogged.

'It is so well preserved that the original toe and heel marks can be seen.

'It just goes to show you never know what lies beneath.

'I am over the moon with the result.'

The shoes may soon be on display in a museum from a 'well known museum'.

WHEN DID VIKINGS INVADE IRELAND?

In the 10,000 years since Stone Age cavemen first arrived, the Irish have established distinct cultural regions.

Researchers have recently found 23 distinct genetic clusters, separated by geography by comparing mutations from almost 1,000 Irish genomes with over 6,000 from Britain and mainland Europe.

These are most distinct in western Ireland, but less pronounced in the east, where historical migrations have erased the genetic variations.

They also detected genes from Europe and calculated the timing of the historical migrations of the Norse-Vikings and the Anglo-Normans to Ireland, yielding dates consistent with historical records.

The Vikings left their genetic footprint in Ireland when they invaded the island, launching their first attack in 795 AD by raiding an island monastery. By the 840s, the Vikings began to establish permanent ship bases along the coastline

The study paints a new and more complex picture of the genetic landscape of Ireland, and demonstrates the signatures that historical migrations have left on the modern Irish genome.

The Vikings left their genetic footprint in Ireland when they invaded the island, launching their first attack in 795 AD by raiding an island monastery.

The Vikings continued to stage small-scale attacks on unprotected costal monasteries before sailing to River Shannon in the 830s to steal from inland religious settlements.

By the 840s, the Vikings began to establish permanent ship bases along the coastline from which they could plunder all year.

Norse influence in Ireland began to decline by the time of the rise of king Brian Boru (pictured in an imagined depiction)

The Vikings also enslaved some of the Irish people, and were able to raid the land by taking advantage of the fact that Ireland was particularly politically fractured.

The Vikings, however did not conquer the island - by the middle of the 10th century they failed to control the territory in Ireland.

The fractured political system in Ireland worked in the island's favour - if one ruler was killed, it did not destabilize the entire island.

Norse influence in Ireland began to decline by the time of the rise of king Brian Boru.

He sacked the Viking town in Limerick in 968 AD and became the overlord of Cork, Wexford and Waterford.

In 1014, the king's army routed the Vikings and their allies at the Battle of Clontarf outside Dublin, but a small group of Norseman killed the elderly kind as he was praying in his tent after the battle.

The Viking remained in Ireland after agreeing to pay a tribute, but the Viking Age in Ireland didn't come to a definitive end until the Norman invasion in the 1170s and the last Norse king of Dublin escaped to the Orkney Islands.


Viking Sword

The history of the sword has given us many designs that are unique, and readily associated with a particular time, place, and culture. Even people who are unfamiliar with the subject will recognize a Scottish basket-hilt, a musketeer's rapier, or the Japanese samurai's katana. One of the most distinctive sword types extant has come to us from the period commonly called the Viking Age. This is a period recognized by scholars as being roughly from 750 A.D. to 1100 A.D. This was an evolutional period between the migration era and what we have come to know as the Middle Ages. The Viking Age saw the transition from composite hilts constructed of non-ferrous metals, and organic materials, to far stronger hilts fashioned from iron. The change from pattern-welded blades to homogenous blades, or those made from one type of steel, also occurred during this period. At the beginning of the Viking Age swords featured a pattern-welded blade that was mounted on a complex and relatively fragile hilt. These swords were exclusive to Chieftains and the great warriors in their service. The hilts were elaborately mounted with precious stones set in gold, and other lavish embellishments, that perhaps contained religious significance. By the end of the age these beautifully constructed, but ungainly, swords had been replaced by swords with better blades and stronger hilts. The point-heavy blades of the great migration gave way to sleeker tapered blades that featured improved handling characteristics.

Measurements and Specifications:

This Viking Sword is based on several swords that date from the tenth century, late in the Viking Age. The most famous of these is a sword that is housed in the British Museum in London. This sword is possibly the most recognizable survivor from the Viking Age. Photographs of it have been featured in nearly every book dealing with Viking arms. (Shown on pages 77-79 in Swords of the Viking Age, as well as pg. 26, X.8, of Oakeshott&rsquos Records of the Medieval Sword.) This excellent sword was found in the River Witham opposite Monks Abbey, Lincoln, England in October 1848. This sword was our main inspiration. It shares the Witham sword's sleek lines and bold proportions. Our hilt design is a variation of Petersen's Type S, as well as Wheeler's Type 6. The blade design is categorized as a Type 4 in the Geibig typology. This type is found from the mid-tenth century through the mid-eleventh century. The blade features a moderate taper with a fuller that runs almost the length of the blade, and follows the same degree of taper as the blade's profile. Type 4 blades tend to be shorter, and narrower, than their earlier counterparts. In this sense, this sword is a variation instead of a pure example, since it is larger than the standard Type 4. This should not be seen as a point of contention since the swords on which it is based are larger than the norm, for the type.

This is a visually striking sword, and a key feature of this is the sword's pommel. The grip has been fashioned from two halves of stabilized birch that has been hollowed out to accept the blade's tang. A central cord riser is then added to the grip for visual detail, and as an aid in gripping. Finally, the grip is covered with thin leather that is glued into place. The completed assembly results in a finished grip that is well proportioned and aesthetically pleasing. Its lower guard is a simple solid brass curved design.. There is no perceptible movement in any of the hilt components. Everything is tight and secure. The blade is cleanly finished, and very nicely finished. The fuller's profile is sharp and crisp, with no wandering or drifting of its outer edges. The blade features an edge geometry that is acute yet substantial enough to give good service. This edge would have been more than sufficient against the mail byrnies and wooden shields in use during the tenth century. Its blade would have done well against the lightly armored warriors of the Viking Age. Viking swords have been described as "big butcher knives!" I feel that this is a very apt description. Our Viking Sword features a blade that is broad yet thin in cross-section. This design allows for a blade that is an efficient cutter yet still retains the necessary mass for strength, as well as impetus during the cut. The blade is topped off with a serviceable point that would have been effective against the typical body defenses of the period. In spite of this, however, the blade is still a dedicated cutter. The cut was the preferred offensive technique of the period and the design shows this. I used the traditional Japanese cutting medium of rolled, and water-soaked, tatami mats for my cutting exercises, and find that this sword tracks well into and out of the cut. The sword is also responsive in thrusting maneuvers. It&rsquos an agile and efficient cutter that strikes with authority. The sword's grip may be considered by some to be too long. We have been educated to believe that Viking sword grips were very short. However, when examining the grip lengths of the swords listed in Swords of the Viking Age it will be seen that its grip is well within the historic parameters of the type. I utilize both the typical "hammer" style grip, as well as the "Viking" method of palming the sword's pommel. I found that both methods gave satisfactory, though very different, results. When using the hammer grip very powerful chopping blows were possible. This is a technique that would have been effective in the close press of a shield wall, where broad movements aren't possible. When palming the pommel longer range slashing cuts were the norms. I used the sword in conjunction with a Viking pattern shield during these exercises, and I found that the palming method allowed for a longer reach while still maintaining cover behind one's shield.


The berserkers were champion warriors who are reported to have fought in a trance-like fury – a state that was likely to have been at least partly induced by alcohol or drugs. These warriors gave their name to the English word “berserk”.

Based on oral traditions, these tales – which were mostly written in Iceland – were usually realistic and based on true events and figures. They were, however, sometimes romanticised or fantastical and the accuracy of the stories is often hotly disputed.


POVEZANI ČLANKI

Subsequent research then showed that they had all been massacred at the same time, probably in AD 1002.

While 33 of them were tall, robust adult males, two were adolescents who had met a violent death - but did not necessarily lead a violent life.

Analysis suggests that some of the victims originated from within the UK, Denmark and Germany.

The rib bones of a Viking skeleton from AD 1002 at the Museum Resource Centre in Oxfordshire

The massacre was prompted by King Aethelred's frustration at his inability to stop Viking invaders from raiding England, experts say.

There are plans to carry out further tests on SK1756 in an effort to unearth more secrets from beyond the grave.

The documentary and the exhibition will open at the Danish National Museum in Copenhagen in 2021 and run in various forms until 2024.

THE VIKING AGE LASTED FROM AROUND 700–1110 AD

The Viking age in European history was from about 700 to 1100 AD.

During this period many Vikings left their homelands in Scandinavia and travelled by longboat to other countries, like Britain and Ireland.

When the people of Britain first saw the Viking longboats they came down to the shore to welcome them.

However, the Vikings fought the local people, stealing from churches and burning buildings to the ground.

The people of Britain called the invaders 'Danes', but they came from Norway and Sweden as well as Denmark.

The name 'Viking' comes from a language called 'Old Norse' and means ‘a pirate raid’.

The first Viking raid recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was around 787 AD.

It was the start of a fierce struggle between the Anglo-Saxons and the Vikings.


10 Archaeological Discoveries Found In Strange Places

When you&rsquore an archaeologist, you pretty much have an idea of what you&rsquore going to find and where you&rsquore going to find it. If you&rsquore in the Egyptian desert for example, you&rsquore bound to find a couple pyramids or two. But King Richard&rsquos remains under a Leicester car park? You don&rsquot hear about that kind of discovery too often. So with last week&rsquos discovery, we got to wondering what other archaeological discoveries have been found in unusual places? You&rsquod be very much surprised!

Discovery: King Richard III&rsquos Remains Found under Leicester Car Park

He was the king everyone loves to hate. King Richard III ruled England from 1483 until his death in 1485 but though his reign may have been short it was definitely not without controversy (to say the least).

From usurping the crown from his very own nephews (then eventually having them killed) to ordering his own wife and brother killed, King Richard III was one of England&rsquos most hated royal villains. So hated was he that in William Shakespeare&rsquos play, Richard was depicted as an ugly hunchback whose outwardly deformed body represented his inwardly twisted mind.

Thankfully, though his rule was relatively short as he met a violent death at the Battle of Bosworth. It was here that he suffered two fatal blows to the back of his head. Legend had it that upon death his body was unceremoniously dumped into the River Soar. Archaeologists however, firmly believed that Richard was actually buried at the Greyfriars Friary which is where the now infamous Leicester car park currently resides which as we found out last week is exactly where he came to be found.

Discovery: Roman Gladiator School found in Austria

When someone thinks of Austria, they usually think of castles, schnitzel and Arnold Schwarzenegger. Well, how about the ruins of a Roman gladiator school? Well that&rsquos exactly what archaeologists in Vienna, Austria found back in 2011. The school, located at Carnuntum Archaeological Park and near the Danube River, was erected around A.D. 150, during the reign of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and is said to rival the Ludus Magnus, the largest gladiator training school in Rome.

Partially excavated in 1923, archaeologists used state of the art ground sensors in 2011 to aide in the search for the remaining remnants of this grand structure. And what the archaeologists found astounded them. The entire complex covers 200,000 square feet (19,000 square meters) with a large inner courtyard, a bathing complex, training area, cemetery and cell like living quarters which measure only five meters square.

It&rsquos believed that Aurelius&rsquo son Commodus saw his first gladiator match here and brought the idea of the sport back to Rome. And while it may seem odd that a Roman gladiator school would be found in Austria, it makes perfect sense when one discovers that Carnuntum was the capital of the Roman province Pannonia which stretched over parts of what is now Austria, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovakia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Discovery: Ancient Well Found under Living Room

Every old house is known for an occasional sag and dip somewhere. Colin Steer&rsquos house in Plymouth Devon had such a dip in his living room and he decided to investigate further. So after digging seventeen feet for three days straight Steer made a historical discovery: a thirty-three foot medieval well dating from the 16th century. The well, which was built by Sir Francis Drake to carry water from Dartmoor to Plymouth, was covered over sometime around 1895.

Steer said of the dip in his living room that he always wanted to dig it out to see &ldquoif I could find a pot of gold at the bottom.&rdquo Well, Steer didn&rsquot find a pot of gold but along with the well he did find something else: a peasant&rsquos sword also dating from the 16th century. As for the well that sits on display in his living room, Steer has installed lights inside the structure and keeps it safely covered with a trapdoor.

Discovery: Viking Burial Pit under Dorset UK Road Construction

It was a project that attracted controversy from the very beginning&mdashthe expansion of a road from Weymouth, Dorset to the lsle of Portland which passes through an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. But what road crew workers found upon excavation was much more outstanding&mdasha mass grave of fifty-four skeletons and fifty-one heads of Scandinavian men who were executed sometime between A.D. 910 and 1030. After further analysis, archaeologists determined that this could be the grave of the Jomsvikings, a merciless group that terrorized the coast of England around 1000.

The bodies all showed evidence of a mass execution. All were found naked with their heads in one pile and their bodies in another. It also appeared some men attempted to fight back as some of them were found with their fingers sliced through. It also appeared that they were not all cleanly killed as some of them had multiple blows to the vertebra, jaw bone and skulls.

As for why there they killed in Dorset, archaeologists have two theories: one is that these men were killed by their fellow Vikings as punishment for defection. The other theory is that as they left their Viking ship, the men were ambushed and walked straight into an organized group of Saxons who forced them to surrender and eventually wound up killing them.

Discovery: The Whale under the Railroad Tracks

Back in 1849 in a little town called Charlotte, Vermont a railroad was being built to connect the little town to the capital city of Burlington. During the digging process, road crews were used to finding old arrowheads and spears but what they found next simply astounded them. Upon digging in a remote hillside, a large skull emerged. At first they thought it was the remains of a horse but as they continued digging and more of the skeleton appeared, they realized this was no horse as no legs were to be found.

After the skeleton was fully unearthed, it measured nearly twenty feet long and seemed to resemble a large sea creature. No one however, could figure out how this animal wound up in this remote area some 250 miles from the nearest ocean.

Well, after examining the skeleton, geologists got their theory. The creature, who came to be known as Charlotte, was actually an 11,000 year old white whale who swam into shallow water and eventually died near the outlet of a river. As the body became covered in silt, it remained protected from scavengers and thusly was left to decompose slowly which in turn left the bones to remain completely intact.

As this was occurring, the ice age was slowly retreating from Vermont and a phenomenon known as a &ldquoglacial rebound&rdquo was occurring where &ldquoformerly glaciated land springs back after the weight of the ice is removed.&rdquo And that is how Charlotte the whale came to be found under the train tracks of this sleepy little town in Vermont.

Discovery: Viking Outpost in Newfoundland

As we saw in entry number seven, the Vikings may not have been so warmly welcomed in the UK But from what archaeologists discovered on Baffin Island in Newfoundland they may actually have been partners with the Native Americans in a transatlantic trading network.

While excavating an ancient building on Baffin Island, archaeologists discovered evidence of an ancient Viking outpost. The items found were whetstones, Viking yarn, bronze artifacts that were known to have been manufactured by Viking metal smiths and a whalebone shovel similar to those used by Viking settlers in Greenland. It is known that Viking seafarers did set sail for the New World in A.D. 1000 and that Leif Ericksson, a Viking chieftain did stop on Baffin Island for a short time to explore the coastline.

Archaeologists also believe that Viking seafarers travelled to the Canadian arctic in search of various northern luxuries that were prized by medieval noblemen. It&rsquos believed that in exchange for these prized possessions, Viking traders offered bits of iron and pieces of wood that could be carved into figurines and other goods.

Discovery: Mayan Mural in Guatemalan Family Kitchen

Every do-it-yourselfer enjoys the process of renovating their home. But imagine scraping the paint off your walls and as the plaster slowly falls away a centuries old Mayan mural slowly appears. Well, that is what happened to Lucas Asicona Ramírez of Guatemala as he was renovating his family kitchen. The house, which is located in the small town of Chajul, is almost 300 years old. Though archaeologists have no idea who the original owner was, they are certain the person was someone quite important.

According to archaeologists, the uncovered images were painted on the oldest plaster layers of the walls and were probably created after the Spanish conquest of Guatemala sometime in the 16th century. The style of the murals are reminiscent of those found in 17th&ndash18th century illustrated texts from the region. And while the condition of the murals is fairly decent, archaeologists have noticed some decay as people live and cook in the space.

As for Ramirez, who is a modern day descendant of the Mayan civilization, he hopes to convert the room into a small museum but he doesn&rsquot have enough money as yet to do so.

Discovery: Roman Gravesite Found in Bulgaria

Bulgaria is known for its beautiful beaches and mountainous countryside. But back in the second century, Bulgaria was known as &ldquoLittle Rome&rdquo. This title was verified when a gravesite of Roman soldiers was uncovered during a construction accident. According to reports, workers were pouring concrete for a construction job in the town of Debelt and due to the vibration of the concrete mixer, the ground cracked and a tomb was uncovered.

Archaeologists say the tomb belongs to soldiers from the eighth legion of Augustus. In its Roman heyday, Debelt was known as Deultum and according to the other items that were found there, Deultum held an important place in the Roman Empire. Among the items found there were gold jewelry needles, beads, scrapers used for bathing and massage, medicine, and gold medallions.

Discovery: Building Possibly Older than the Pyramids Found Under Wales Housing Development

While excavating for a proposed housing development in the town of Monmouth, Wales, construction workers found timber foundations of a massive building that sat on the property years and years ago. As it turns out however, the &ldquoyears and years ago&rdquo may actually predate the pyramids in Egypt. Created from what appear to be entire tree trunks, the foundation measures more than fifty feet in length and more than three feet across.

When archaeologists did some testing, they found the structure could possibly be early Neolithic, at about 6,500 years old, thus predating Egypt&rsquos pyramids by about 2,000 years making it the oldest structure in the world. Archaeologists believe it was built on the site of a long lost lake which silted up over time thus preserving the structure. It&rsquos also believed that the structure was a &ldquolong house&rdquo which would have been a home to a family and perhaps used for gatherings and meetings.

Discovery: Catherine de Medici&rsquos Hair Pin Found in Toilet

Talk about a royal flush! During restoration of Paris&rsquo Fontainebleau Palace, workers made the discovery of a lifetime when they found a hairpin belonging to the 16th century French Queen Catherine de Medici in a communal latrine. The hairpin, which measures 3.5 inches, was easily identified as it had the interlocking Cs for Catherine as well as her white and green colors.

What is a real mystery however, is how the hairpin wound up in the communal latrine. As Queen of France, Catherine very much likely had her own royal commode so finding this pin in a communal latrine was quite surprising. Making this find even more valuable however, is that Catherine, who was married to King Henry II from 1547 until his death in 1559, was known to have an extensive jewelry collection yet very little of it has ever been found.

Elaine loves ancient history, laughing and being organized therefore she believes LISTVERSE is the perfect place to display her talents.


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